Saturday, August 31, 2019
The word grotesque is an oxymoron in itself. It means beautiful ugly. How a person can have both of these adjectives is the theme of Winesburg, Ohio written by Sherwood Anderson. His characters become grotesque by holding onto one truth that make them distorted but unknowingly make them beautiful simultaneously. Anderson uses the motif of isolation on Seth Richmond, the Stranger and Tandy to develop their grotesqueness by making the characters' isolation be the reason why they hold onto one truth causing their grotesqueness.On the other hand, the author ses biblical allusion to help clarify the truth Jesse Bentley lives by that causes his grotesqueness. Anderson uses the motif of isolation in order to enhance the grotesqueness of Seth Richmond, as the character's self-imposed isolation causes his grotesqueness. Seth Richmond grows up with his mother, Virginia Richmond who does not know how to discipline him and a deceased father. Seth only stares at his mother apathetically when she scolds him that causes his mother to withdraw from her displeasure.Seth also only shows indifference in things other boys engage in and finds him different rom others, since he does not feel the same emotions people would usually feel. Hence, he holds onto the truth that he does not belong in the town and Ã¢â¬Å"he [wishes] that he himself [be] stirred by somethingÃ¢â¬ (133). Seth's self-imposed isolation is what causes his grotesqueness. He thinks Just because he doesn't have the same interest as the others and is not Ã¢â¬Å"stirred by somethingÃ¢â¬ makes him an outcast and unlike. When in fact, the people of Winesburg admire him because he comes off as a passionate and mature man.Nevertheless, Seth does not acknowledge the people's houghts because he lives by his truth that he does not fit in Winesburg because he is indifferent about things the people our engaged in. For this reason, he is distorted and grotesque for believing one truth and not accepting the others' truths. Later, Seth fancies a girl named Helen but with him imposing that he does not belong in the town and wants to leave, he soon drives away Helen and begins to think that the reason of her departure is because of his truth that he is an outcast.When in reality, Helen departs to avoid further sentiment because Seth tells her that it was their last ime they'll see each other. Nonetheless, He continues to say, Ã¢â¬Å"when it comes to loving someone, it wont never be [him]. It'll beÃ¢â¬ ¦ someone who talks a lot Ã¢â¬â someone like that George WillardÃ¢â¬ (142). Seth continues to hold onto his truth and imposes that he needs be isolated further more from the town and needs to leave Winesburg. This eventually drives Helen away, but Seth believes it is because of his social skills.Hence, he becomes Jealous of George Willard and wants to be like him because he thinks that if he were George, Helen would not have left him. However, George Willard is not that social either, Seth assumes he is a social butterfly because he is a reporter but as a matter of fact he only listens well. Seth is grotesque because he believes in a truth that is not absolute. He believes that Helen left him because he is not as social as George Willard, when it is not the case. He is grotesque tor believing a truth about George Willard that is not true.The author also uses the motif of isolation to develop the grotesqueness of the Stranger and Tandy, as the characters' isolation causes them to hold onto one truth aking them grotesque. Tandy Hard lives only with her father, Tom Hard because her mother is dead. Tom Hard spends most of his time being an atheist, wrecking the ideas and belief that God exists causing his daughter to be neglected. Not having anyone to nurture her and guide her, she becomes lost and continues to live without an identity, as implied by the author when he does not mention her real name until she the stranger names her Tandy.The stranger comes to Winesburg, Ohio in ord er to cure his alcohol addiction and addiction to an image of a lover. He claims that his over is named Tandy who has Ã¢â¬Å"the quality of being strong to be loved,Ã¢â¬ and the only reason he is not with her is because Ã¢â¬Å"she did not come in [his] timeÃ¢â¬ (145). As a result of the stranger being lone and isolated for not having a lover, he holds onto the truth that his lover is named Tandy and she was not born in his time for the stranger does not find her yet.His reasoning makes him distorted because he continues to believe the truth that there is a Tandy that was not born at his time and not acknowledge the truth that there might not be any Tandy at all. In addition, his isolation also makes im grotesque because it makes him live by the truth that his lover is someone like Tandy and does not acknowledge the truth that there are other women out there that can be his potential lovers without necessarily having the same quality as Tandy.Nonetheless, the stranger imposes o n the daughter that she should be Tandy and she should be strong and brave in order to beloved. Consequently, the daughter not having an identity starts to incline on the idea of Tandy. When her father calls her, she retaliates and says, Ã¢â¬Å"[she] want[s] to be called Tandy Ã¢â¬â Tandy HardÃ¢â¬ (146). After he daughter's statement demanding she wants to be called Tandy, it is implied that she will continue to live as Tandy. For that reason, the daughter is grotesque for not accepting that she can have her own truth to live by and not Just the truth of the stranger.However, the only reason she holds onto the stranger's truth is because she does not acquire her own identity from the isolation and lack of nurture she gets from her father. Therefore, her isolation because of the lack of guidance from her father causes her to live by another person's truth distorting her and making her rotesque. Anderson uses biblical allusion to help clear up the truth Jesse Bentley lives by cr eating his grotesqueness. Jesse Bentley inherits a colossal amount of land from his dead father and brothers.Before inheriting the land Jesse Bentley studied to be a minister, so returning home he is filled with religious thoughts. Hence, he begins to think that his farm is an empire of God and thinks that his lands need to be protected from Ã¢â¬Å"the hands of the PhilistinesÃ¢â¬ (73). As a man who studied to be a minister, it is understandable to return with the words of God. However, Jesse Bentley ssociating his life to the Bible and calling his neighbors Philistines is Just absurd and twisted.He lives by the truth that his life is parallel with Jesse's life from the Bible, and even goes to the extent of calling his neighbors Philistines implying that they are enemies. For this reason, Jesse Bentley is grotesque because he lives by the truth that his neighbors are Philistines like in the Bible, causing his distortion and grotesqueness because his truth is not really true. As I said before, Jesse Bentley commences to equate his life to the Jesse of the Old Testament. The Jesse from the Old Testament is known as Christ's key ancestor.As a result, Bentley prays to God that his wife conceives a son that can be named David in order for the lineage to start. However, his wife conceives a girl, Louise that gives birth to a son named David. Jesse Bentley then starts to get obsessive about contacting God through his grandson David. He thinks that through David they Ã¢â¬Å"will see the beauty and glory of GodÃ¢â¬ (100), so he brings a sheep to sacrifice and uses David as a host in the forest. Jesse Bentley holds onto the truth that he can be a significant person like the Jesse from the Old Testament through his grandson.He strongly believes that his life is parallel to the life of the Bible's Jesse when it is not the case. In addition, the fact that he still tries to equate his life into the bible when there's a generation gap and the story that he is reenactin g is Abraham and Isaac and not Jesse and David shows that he is so desperate to communicate with God and feel significant that it makes him distorted and grotesque. Furthermore, because Jesse Bentley is blinded by his want to be significant and the truth that he can communicate with God, he does not accept the ruth that God may not exist making him grotesque.In conclusion, the characters' isolation leads them to live by one truth that enhances their grotesqueness. Additionally, the author uses biblical allusion to explain and clarify the truths the characters' hold onto that makes them grotesque. In some way, the characters' or in general people's grotesqueness can be seen as beautiful. People's faith in a certain truth can be considered beautiful and no matter how distorted it makes them seem, it's the fact that people stand on their ground and fght for what they believe in, makes them admirable.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Susan GlaspellÃ¢â¬â¢s 1916 play titled Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ uses many elements of drama such as, diction and spectacle through the actions of the two women as they rummage through a unusually messy kitchen to develop complexity and hold the attention of the audience until the very end. Glaspell uses irony and common misconceptions to convey her powerful message Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ is also a play that reflects a clear notion of gender and sex roles. Glaspell, a feminist writer, writes plays that are known for their development of deep, sympathetic characters that have strong principles that are worth standing up for (Holstein 288). TriflesÃ¢â¬ opens up in its setting, which is a rural area of Nebraska in a newly abandoned farmhouse kitchen belonging to the Wright family. The play is written from two different perspectives. The perspectives include a maleÃ¢â¬â¢s, which include George Henderson, the county attorney, Henry Peter, the sheriff, and Lewis Hale, a neighboring farmer, and a femaleÃ¢â¬â¢s, which includes Mrs. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s, the wife of Henry Peters and Mrs. Hale, the wife of Lewis Hale. The male characters enter the house as a crime scene. The county attorney carries out the investigation in an orderly way by interviewing the key witness and asking for the facts only. Ã¢â¬Å"The audience hears only male voices for the first quarter of the play as they go from room to room routinely until they left nothing out, Ã¢â¬ËNothing of importanceÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Holstein 283). The females of the play were very hesitant to enter the house. The beginning scene describes, Ã¢â¬Å"The women have come in slowly, and stand close together near the doorÃ¢â¬ (Glaspell 958). The women enter the house as a home rather than a crime scene. They are there only to gather items for the imprisoned, Mrs. Wright. They are very nervous and timid, which can be determined by the diction that Glaspell uses. Many dashes are used as the women speak slowly and thoughtfully in the home where a man was just murdered. Seeing the bread outside the breadbox, the broken fruit jars, and the rocking chair that Mrs. Wright was sitting in before and after the alleged murder that Mrs. Hale almost sat in causing it to rock back and forth all startled and made the women uneasy as they wondered around the house (Glaspell 962). These details also play a role in the spectacle that Glaspell is creating. As the play progresses, they are able to put themselves in Mrs. WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s position, making them more comfortable as they explore the familiar kitchen. Mrs. Hale has been Mrs. WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s neighbor for years and knows how hard it is to keep up with the cleaning and womanly chores of the home, which is why she is angry when the men are snooping around and judging her (Glaspell 962). She recalls when Ã¢â¬Å"Minnie Foster, now Mrs. Wright, wore a white dress with blue ribbons and stood up in the choir and sangÃ¢â¬ (Glaspell 968). As the women find the birdcage and later discover the dead bird wrapped in a beautiful box and realize what has happened in the WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s home, they begin to sympathize with her. They first think about Ã¢â¬Å"the lonely quiet of her childless farmhouseÃ¢â¬ (Holstein 285). Mrs. Hale Ã¢â¬Å"mourns the loss of Mrs. WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s preserved fruit, remembering her own hard work during canning seasonÃ¢â¬ (Holstein 286). For the first time throughout the play, Mrs. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s softens to MinnieÃ¢â¬â¢s situation remembering the time a boy murdered her kitten and whispered, Ã¢â¬Å"If they hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t held me back I would haveÃ¢â¬âhurt himÃ¢â¬ (Glaspell 967). Holstein mentions, Ã¢â¬Å"She also contemplates the stillness of her old homestead after her first baby died and compares it to MinnieÃ¢â¬â¢s solitudeÃ¢â¬ (286). It is clear that the women are able to sympathize with Minnie Wright because Ã¢â¬Å"they share her experienceÃ¢â¬ (Holstein 286). The play begins to be ironic as the men tease and belittle the women by poking fun at their Ã¢â¬Å"triflesÃ¢â¬ such as whether Mrs. Wright would sew or knot her quilt. Ã¢â¬Å"Mrs. Hale says, resentfully, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know as thereÃ¢â¬â¢s anything so strange, our takinÃ¢â¬â¢ up our time with little things while weÃ¢â¬â¢re waiting for them to get the evidenceÃ¢â¬ (Glaspell 964). Holstein points out that evidence is nothing more than the Ã¢â¬Å"little thingsÃ¢â¬ (284). The first trifle that was discussed was Ã¢â¬Å"a neighborÃ¢â¬â¢s visitÃ¢â¬ , which Mrs. Hale has ongoing guilt about throughout the play. Ã¢â¬Å"Mrs. Hale observes, Ã¢â¬Å"We live close together and we live far apart. We all go through the same thingsÃ¢â¬âitÃ¢â¬â¢s all just a different kind of the same thingÃ¢â¬ (Holstein 287). Other examples of their trifles that are discussed are items such as the birdcage that no longer has a bird in it and the square of quilt that is not nearly as neat as the others. These Ã¢â¬Å"triflesÃ¢â¬ become major evidence in the murdering of John Wright, but are kept secret by the women. The women ironically become the main characters of this murder mystery, which was groundbreaking in the time that Glaspell wrote this play. The men seemingly disappear as the women instinctively uncover the mystery for themselves piece by piece giving them a certain power over the men. In the beginning of the play, the women are quiet from Ã¢â¬Å"powerlessnessÃ¢â¬ , but by the end Ã¢â¬Å"Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters ultimately find power in being devalued, for their low status allows them to keep quiet at he playÃ¢â¬â¢s end. Ã¢â¬ The women are much like Ã¢â¬Å"servants and other discounted groupsÃ¢â¬ , for they are allowed to have knowledge of subjects Ã¢â¬Å"because it is assumed they will not be able to make intelligent use of itÃ¢â¬ (Holstein 284). By not turning Mrs. Wright in, Mrs. Peters clearly makes a change from the start of the play to the end. Mrs. Hale is luckily able to change Mrs. PetersÃ¢â¬â¢ initial thought on the discovery of Mrs. Wright being a murderer, which was the idea that Ã¢â¬Å"The law has got to punish crimesÃ¢â¬ (Glaspell 968). The men enter the kitchen again after carrying out these investigations with no more knowledge of the murder than when they started. The county attorney overlooks the trifle of Mrs. Wright being afraid of cats when he questions the empty birdcage, which could have been possible evidence. Mrs. Hale lied and said, Ã¢â¬Å"We thinkÃ¢â¬âthe cat got itÃ¢â¬ (Glaspell 697). Holstein mentions, Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps Mrs. HaleÃ¢â¬â¢s remark is an oblique reference to the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s silence, as in the old question Ã¢â¬Ëhas the cat got your tongue? Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ The attorney is only interested in the Ã¢â¬Å"visible evidenceÃ¢â¬ of the murder (Holstein 285). In the end the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s silence is no longer a Ã¢â¬Å"silence of powerlessnessÃ¢â¬ , but a power of Ã¢â¬Å"intention and choiceÃ¢â¬ (Holstein 284). The plays final line is the most powerful line. The county attorney remarks sarcastically, Ã¢â¬Å"Well Henry, at least we found out that she was not going to quilt it. She was going toÃ¢â¬âwhat is it that you call it, ladies? Ã¢â¬ and Mrs. Hale responded, Ã¢â¬Å"We call itÃ¢â¬âknot it, Mr. HendersonÃ¢â¬ (Glaspell 968). Holstein discusses that Ã¢â¬Å"Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters intentionally Ã¢â¬Å"knotÃ¢â¬ their knowledge and do Ã¢â¬Å"notÃ¢â¬ share it. There silence has become a mark of their solidarity, a refusal to endanger a sister. She ends her article with a basic summary of the men in the play by stating, Ã¢â¬Å"For the men in the play, [the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s] secret remains an undiscovered trifleÃ¢â¬ (Holstein 290). Many aspects of GlaspellÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"TriflesÃ¢â¬ make it a moving play with a simple, yet powerful theme of women in this time period being powerful in the same way that they are powerless; in silence. As a feminist, Glaspell is able to give women the power of using trifles and womanly concerns that men laugh at to solve a murder mystery with hard evidence, and also gives them the power to stick up for a fellow female and withhold information from the portrayed ignorance of men. Although Glaspell does not come right out and say it, she is making it clear that she finds men to be overbearing and inferior to women contrary to the popular beliefs at the time this play was written. Glaspell does something inspiring by using the many elements of drama along side irony and the notion of gender and sex roles to develop a complex, chilling, and entertaining play about something as serious as a scorned woman seeking revenge on her husband and two women using simple Ã¢â¬Å"triflesÃ¢â¬ to understand why.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
When i Ã¯ ¬ rst heard that the manger assigned me to be the lead the Customer Relations team i was very happy. but when start to work there i found some motivation issue with the section. as we all know the motivation is the most important thing in the work environment, and the real challenge is to keep your employees always motivated. So i did so research about the best strategy and approach to use and her the result. Applying the same strategies you use with all of your employees wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be as productive or eÃ¯ ¬â¬ective withe every one, so we have to know what is the suitable theory and approach for each group. you have to keep the enthusiastic and motivated employees and improve their performance. in this case the most eÃ¯ ¬â¬ected theory will be Goal setting theory. the research showed that there are a strong relationship between how speciÃ¯ ¬ c and diÃ¯ ¬Æ'cult was the goal and the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s performance at the mission. And thus the more diÃ¯ ¬Æ'cult and challenging are the tasks, they will have a higher rate of performance. This is What the goal setting theory all about. to achieve the best result from this theory, the goal must have Ã¯ ¬ ve principle: clear, challenging goals and commit the employees to achieving them. Provide feedback on goal performance, considerate the complexity of the task. if we apply this theory in this group of employees the overall performance will improve, because there always be some task and goal to achieve and that will keep them enthusiastic and motivated. In addition, we can apply the Job enlargement Approach and add more variety to there work by tasks. To understand the unenthusiastic and obstinate employees of your Ã¯ ¬ rm and makeÃ them more eÃ¯ ¬Æ'ciency and productivity in there performance you Ã¯ ¬ rst have to understand there needs and motivation of work. this is fundamental part between the leader and the employees (emotional control), because when the follower known that the leader is looking after them they will give their best in return. For this group of employees the best theory will be (MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Need Hierarchy Theory). MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Need Hierarchy Theory Published by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Ã¢â¬ this theory contends that as humans strive to meet our most basic needs, we also seek to satisfy a higher set of needsÃ¢â¬ . Maslow presents this set of needs as a hierarchy, consisting of: Physiological, Safety, Love, Self-esteem, Self-actualization. This theory will eÃ¯ ¬â¬ected in this group for 2 reasons: By understanding the employees needs you will recognize that the money donÃ¢â¬â¢t solve everything. the people have many need you cant achieved by hard cash.Theory give the Manager the ability to satisfy the employees without costly. its not expensive to create safety environment for them or to have team social where 3 EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION they get to know each other. that will help them to be more enthusiastic and less obstinate. on the other hand we can apply Job rotation Approach and moving the unenthusiastic employees to other sections where they can be more comfortable and enthusiastic. The main reason for the high absenteeism and poor attitude toward the customer is dissatisfaction with the work environment.If we want to Ã¯ ¬ x this problem, we Ã¯ ¬ rst have to know what are the things that bother the staÃ¯ ¬â¬. HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Motivator theory can help us to discover what are the things that make the employees Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction. the theory said that the The opposite of Satisfaction is No Satisfaction and The opposite of Dissatisfaction is No Dissatisfaction. therefor we have Ã¯ ¬ rst to Eliminate Job Dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) such as Security, Status, Salary and Company Policies. Then Create Conditions for Job Satisfaction such as Achievement, Recognition and Responsibility. After we Ã¯ ¬ nish this two step the people will start to be more Satisfaction and motivated by the work environment. the best theory for ambitious and want to advance in the organization employees is McClellandÃ¢â¬â¢s Human Motivation Theory. According to the theory, each person have diÃ¯ ¬â¬erent dominant motivators, whether these are the needs for power, achievement or aÃ¯ ¬Æ'liation. by knowing which dominant motivators work for each person in your team, you can structure praise and rewards eÃ¯ ¬â¬ectively. Also by using this theory you will help your employees to be more achievable and ambitious. In the next few lines I will explain the pest program to keep the your employees motivated and enthusiastic According to my research.Ã Try to make the work environment more comfortable and pleasant as possible, especially for the employees with low-skill and monotonous roles. Additionally, donÃ¢â¬â¢t forget to Reward your team, even by saying Ã¢â¬Å"thank youÃ¢â¬ for them even if they do a small job. Let them having control some time, when the people feeling that they have the control of what tasks and project they can, that give the more job satisfaction. People with low ambitious usually go for low state job, So you have to make them feel proud of what they did and treat them equally with the other employees even in the rewards. The best approach that you can use here is Ã¢â¬Å"Job EnrichmentÃ¢â¬ , which mean simply Ã¢â¬Å"Increasing Job SatisfactionÃ¢â¬ .When your work assignments reÃ¯ ¬âect task identity, a good level of skill variety, task signiÃ¯ ¬ cance, autonomy, and feedback, your employees are likely be much more satisfaction, also have high work eÃ¯ ¬â¬ectiveness and high intrinsic work motivation. EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION CONCLUSION: understanding that factors that motivate your employees is the most signiÃ¯ ¬ cant part of your role as the manager. Also that will help your business to improve. More ever, providing the best environment will help you to keep them motivated and satisfaction. As a manager you have to be close to your employees and know they needs Individually. 3
Anthropology ideas - Research Paper Example rge schism was formed between the shared heritage that was formed out of the tragedy and the rights of every American citizen to care for the remains of their family members (Colwell-Chanthaphoh & Greenwald, 2011). From an anthropologistÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, the controversy can bring about two anthropological perspectives. The first is that the actions of the state are working to break the individual right for any American citizen to take care of the remains of the their kin, while the second is that the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are working to form a new national, shared or common heritage. I believe anthropologists should not take any side on the issue. In my opinion, the actions of the state will affect some part of the national heritage and change the cultural heritage of the nation. Colonialism, in my opinion, was a system that was largely motivated by the acquisition of natural resources where indigenous people were forced into hard labor. I was naturally aware of the era of colonization but did not really recognize the vast effects it had on the colonies as well as the colonizing nations. In the colonizing nations, I believe that one of the lingering effects have to do with the mass transportation of the people in the colonies to the colonizing nation for labor. This greatly affected the demography as well as the cultural heritage of the destination country through the sharing and adoption of different cultural values. Colonization introduced the act of reflexibility in anthropology where anthropologists consider past actions in order to choose the topic to be researched and the method by which they write the
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Volkswagen and Mercedes Benz - Essay Example For the third quarter the company posted net profit of Ã¢â ¬7.146 billion which is three times higher than the profit figure in the same quarter of the last year. The astounding company results are attributed to its investment in new products, manufacturing operations in the emerging markets like China. The company plans to invest heavily in developing markets simultaneously consolidating its position in developed regions such as Europe and Americas. (IHS global 2011) The following table represents year wise consolidated income statement of the company. Figures in Millions of Euros Items Dec 31, 2007 Dec 31, 2008 Dec 31, 2009 Dec 31, 2010 Total Revenues 108,897.0 113,808.0 105,187.0 126,875.0 Cost of Goods Sold 83,593.0 87,862.0 81,899.0 94,050.0 Gross Profit 16,399.0 16,250.0 12,733.0 20,742.0 Operating Expenses, Total 10,142.0 11,431.0 12,648.0 13,868.0 Operating Income 6,257.0 4,819.0 85.0 6,874.0 Net Interest Expense 413.0 344.0 -781.0 -626.0 EBT, Excluding Unusual Items 7,665. 0 6,688.0 863.0 7,956.0 Income Tax Expense 2,421.0 1,920.0 349.0 1,767.0 Net Income 4,120.0 4,753.0 960.0 6,835.0 Source: http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/financials/financials.asp?ticker=VOW:GR Balance Sheet of Volkswagen Figures in Millions of Euros Assets Dec 31, 2007 Dec 31, 2008 Dec 31, 2009 Dec 31, 2010 Total Cash And Short Term Investments 15,638.0 11,394.0 21,890.0 22,794.0 Total Receivables 8,902.0 11,372.0 10,871.0 12,811.0 Total Current Assets 68,516.0 76,163.0 77,776.0 85,936.0 Plant And Equipment 25,689.0 30,030.0 31,745.0 34,550.0 Total Assets 145,357.0 167,919.0 177,178.0 199,393.0 Figures in Millions of Euros Liabilities Dec 31, 2007 Dec 31, 2008 Dec 31, 2009 Dec 31, 2010 Accounts Payable 8,202.0 9,085.0 9,734.0 11,628.0 Other Current Liabilities, Total 14,620.0 15,330.0 14,911.0 17,043.0 Total Current Liabilities 56,068.0 64,802.0 69,534.0 76,899.0 Long-Term Debt 3,645.0 2,240.0 9,272.0 8,989.0 Pension & Other Post-Retirement Benefits 12,481.0 12,82 9.0 13,793.0 15,265.0 Deferred Tax Liability Non-Current 2,637.0 3,654.0 2,224.0 1,669.0 Other Non-Current Liabilities 12,775.0 15,863.0 17,061.0 19,522.0 Total Liabilities 113,419.0 130,531.0 139,748.0 150,681.0 Total Common Equity 31,875.0 35,011.0 35,281.0 45,978.0 Total Liabilities & Equity 145,357.0 167,919.0 177,178.0 199,393.0 Source: http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/financials/financials.asp?ticker=VOW:GR&dataset=balanceSheet&period=A¤cy=native Cash Flow Statement (Figures in Millions of Euros) Details Dec 31, 2007 Dec 31, 2008 Dec 31, 2009 Dec 31, 2010 Net Income 4,120.0 4,753.0 960.0 6,835.0 Depreciation & Amortization, Total 6,427.0 6,738.0 4,900.0 5,058.0 Cash From Operations 15,662.0 2,702.0 12,741.0 11,455.0 Cash From Investing -15,812.0 -11,183.0 -9,675.0 -11,048.0 Total Debt Issued 9,609.0 17,477.0 16,998.0 7,910.0 Total Debt Repaid -8,524.0 -8,485.0 -10,225.0 -12,069.0 Total Dividend Paid -497.0 -720.0 -779.0 -755.0 Cash From Financing 787.0 8 ,123.0 5,536.0 -852.0 Net Change in Cash 547.0 -471.0 8,792.0 -8.0 Source: http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/financials/financials.asp?ticker=VOW:GR&dataset=cashFlow&period=A¤cy=native Financial Analysis It will be interesting to analyze the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financials from stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s progress in last few years has been exemplary and how the stakeholders can see the Key
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
How Do the NSC and APNSA Operate - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that the national security agency (NSA) is the U.S intelligence agency that has been given the responsibility of providing the United States government with encrypted information assurance and reading encrypted communication signals intelligence of other nations. The department that has been mandated with the duty to create and maintain secure computer network operations for the US government and prepare for impending network warfare. On the other hand, the assistant to the president for national security affairsÃ APNSA is the senior-most official in the executive office of the president who serves as the chief advisor stationed in the white house to the president of the United States on national security issues. Ã The person who seat in that chair also is a member of the national security council and is located in the west wing of the white house where he finds support from national security council staff that produces research, intel ligence, and briefings for the APNSA to review and present them to the president. The origin of NSA can be traced from 1917 after the Congress declared war on Germany in World War 1 during this time a code and cipher decryption unit was set up with its headquarters in Washington D.C. The NSA is responsible for the protection of U.S government communications and another information system, due to the growing practice of mass surveillance in the U.S. NSA collects all phone records of all Americans citizens that it uses in an analysis of the potential threat to the nation. However, NSA has no authority to conduct human source intelligence gathering although it is often portrayed doing so in popular culture and regions. Nevertheless, it remains its objective to coordinate and deconfliction of SIGINT components of otherwise non-SIGINT government organization. These organizations are prevented by law from engaging in such activities without the approval of the NSA through the secretary of defense. NSA has been reported to be doing the massive extent of the NSAÃ¢â¬â¢s spying both domestic and foreign that was revealed to the public in a series of detailed disclosures of internal NSA documents from June 2013 where most disclosures are said to have been leaked by former NSA contractor Edward snow den. Since everybody insists that they should have the privacy of what they do with their private lives, it is evident that with NSA there is nothing like privacy.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Implementation reflection paper - Essay Example The most usual troubles include cutting trees, blocking rivers, extreme animal grazing, storms, overflows, and fires, notably, not all the ecologically disturbances can be attributed to man since others like flooding are nurture. These are some of the key issues examined under the study of ecological restoration which is a scientific discipline that studies the repairing of disturbed ecologies. To deal with these disturbances, restoration activities have been designed to restore the environment to its initial state before the disturbance occurred or to create a new and appropriate eco system where there had been none previously. Restoration projects are different in terms of objectives and methodology applied, majority of the restoration systems are however focused in re-establishing native species of animals or plants and/or repair of pre-existing ecological systems (Higgs, 2010). Restoration developments vary in their purposes and their ways and means of accomplishing those objecti ves, examples of the common restorative activities include; revegetation, which is the reestablishment of flora in places it had existed previously, this is often done with intention to control erosion by creating plant cover (Vaughn, 2010). Habitat enhancement by which a siteÃ¢â¬â¢s suitability is enhanced to make it more conducive as a habitat for a given species, remediation involves the improvement of an existing ecosystem or replacing a deteriorated or destroyed ecosystem. Historically, the idea or restoration has been known for centuries but it is not until recently that notable action has been taken. Some of the most wide scale restoration projects in the world include the Florida wetland restoration in the United States and the Mau forest in Kenya where trees were replanted after years of deforestation. The wetlands in Florida had been drained and the indigenous plants cleared in and used as farms and pastures crops in the 60s as the land was reclaimed for crop cultivation , as a result many animal and plant species native to the everglades vanished since the environment had become hostile for them (Nellemann, 2010). However in 2001, efforts to restore the land were put in place, the water level was returned to normal through reduction of water canals in the region and as soon as the required hydrology was achieved the native species were introduced (Hogan, et al, 2011). A total of 143 acres of wetland were restored and 20 listed animal species reintroduced in to the wetlands and currently placed under the protection by the state to prevent future attempts to encroach the nurture habitat. In Kenya high deforestation in the Mau forest which is a critical catchment area that supplied water to the AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest freshwater Lake (Lake Victoria) this called for mitigate action which included a cessation of tree felling activities and planting of thousands of trees. After the BP oil spillage, the American coastal wetlands are also in need for exten sive restoration efforts as a result of extreme destruction of the ecosystem and consequent ill effects on marine plants and animals (Barbier, 2011). One of the concepts on which restoration draws is the concept of landscape ecology, this is because restored areas are often small and this puts them at risks similar to those that happen in situations of environmental
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Week 8 Discussion Board - Assignment Example Today, in the US, many non-natives still live in the congested apartment projects while the wealthy, both native and non- natives, live in villas, mansions and terraced houses. This is similar to the Victorian suburb where the wealthy natives lived together in huge mansions, although racism was worse in the past. Both today and in the Victorian suburb, people from higher social class have better houses from those from low social class. People, who live in the suburbs, both current and in the historically, are wealthy and powerful. Historically, one had to be introduced by people you know in the suburbs to the society otherwise you were not welcomed. They did not allow average people to their society not unless one belonged to the same social class. Most people who lived in the suburbs were old money. Historically, living in the suburbs meant one had to keep up with the rest of the suburbia residents. You had to dress in a certain way, belong to specific membership clubs and attend specific social gatherings. If one did not do the things that came with the social status, you did not Ã¢â¬Å"belongÃ¢â¬ and people said that you were not Ã¢â¬Å"livingÃ¢â¬ . One had to have a lot of money to cater for all the social activities that came with the status (Cutting, 1907). Currently, anyone who can afford to buy a house in the suburbs is free to do so. People live their lives without being concerned with the way their neighbors live. Neighbors might even be strangers and they keep different
Saturday, August 24, 2019
B202 PART B TMA - Essay Example Higher the ratio, higher is the margin of safety for the creditors. Main ratios used in the analysis are: For looking at long term trends in performance key ratios (as above) were obtained for the years 2005 to 2008. Comparison of these ratios over these four years shows the trend for the enterprise whether it is upward, downward or stagnant. It was also thought prudent to see how the enterprise stands as compared to the industry. In view of the fact that at present the economy is going through an exceptional downturn, it was thought best to analyze the past performance by averaging the data from 2005 to 2008. The average of figures from 2005 to 2008 obtained was then taken as base to calculate the analytical ratios. These ratios were then compared with the industry ratios to highlight the areas in which TescoÃ¢â¬â¢s performance is better than its competitors. Profitability- In terms of profitability Gross Profit Margin is range bound showing only a marginal decline of 0.11% over four year period from 2005 to 2008. Thus there is no significant change in terms of operating cost or sale price in the years under consideration. Net Profit Margin has shown slight improvement in the comparative analysis by half a percent i.e., 0.508. Thus even though gross profit ratio is almost stagnant there is slight upward trend in net profit, this could be due to higher turnover wherein the net profit tends to increase after reaching breakeven point for every increase in sales. The other two profitability ratios also indicate the effectiveness of management in managing the resources and they reveal a small but definite upward trend over the four years. Return on assets has grown by 0.501% from 2005 to 2008. Return on equity shows even better growth of 2.301%. Thus retained earnings seem to have yielded increased profit over the years. The Liquidity Ratios on the other
Friday, August 23, 2019
CSR for business managers, stakeholders and society - Research Paper Example Therefore it is the duty of the companies to work in accordance with the interests of the community and environment. However, only few companies are strictly observing CSR in practice, even though most of the companies agree with CSR in principle. This paper analyses the reputation of Coca Cola in terms of corporate social responsibility. Description of the company Operating in more than 200 countries worldwide, the American company Coca cola is one among the largest soft drink manufacturers in the world at present. Ã¢â¬Å"In May, 1886, Coca Cola was invented by Doctor John Pemberton a pharmacist from Atlanta, Georgia. Today, products of the Coca Cola Company are consumed at the rate of more than one billion drinks per dayÃ¢â¬ (Bellis). Even though PepsiCo is causing some serious challenges to Coca Cola in some part of the world, Coca Cola is able to maintain its superiority in most of the regions in the world. Issue Identification According to Jeff Seabright, The Coca-Cola Compan y's vice president of environment and water resources, Ã¢â¬Å"sustainability begins with the simple act of paying attention. You can't manage what you can't measure"(Making Sustainability the Real Thing). In other words, Coca Cola is well aware of the importance of concepts such as corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. However, the accusations against Coca Cola with respect to the violation of social responsibility are growing across the world. ... People from Kerala (IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s southernmost state) have recently conducted an agitation against the underwater exploitation by Coca Cola. Villagers near Plachimada, Kerala faced severe drinking water shortage because of Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s uncontrolled underwater exploitation. Coca Cola forced to close down their plant at Plachimada because of the public agitation against them (EMJ). Significance of the Issue Drinking water shortage is one of the major problems facing by people all over the world. Because of injudicious farming activities and heavy industrialization, majority of the water resources such as rivers and streams were polluted in most parts of the world. As a result of that current generation is relying heavily on underwater resources for their drinking needs. Coca Cola like soft drink manufacturers is exploiting these resources and the people near the soft drink bottling plants are struggling to get enough drinking water from the nature. Stakeholder identification Som e of the major stakeholders of Coca Cola Company are; ordinary people, Coca Cola employees, shareholders in Coca Cola, government and local bodies. On one side, Coca Cola is trying to make profit and safeguard the interests of the company management and the shareholders. On the other side, ordinary people lose their drinking water resources and the government and local bodies struggle to take proper actions. It should be noted that as part of free trade agreements, it is the duty of the government of India to prepare enough facilities to Coca Cola like companies. Moreover, Indian government is currently trying to attract foreign direct investment at any cost to stimulate economic growth. The investments by Coca Cola would definitely help
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Political Science Critique Essay Why is it to be changed? For as a citizen of the Philippines experiencing simple life can see this problem in our country. It is said in the sections that Ã¢â¬Å"official language is the prescribed medium of communication in the government, courts and schools. It may not be the national languageÃ¢â¬ . Including with this, the official language of the Philippines are Filipino and English. And that is the error of this part of the 1987 Philippine Constitution. We should not include ENGLISH as an official language of our country. First, is it implication that Americans are still in our culture especially in our Constitution. Second, we must have only one official language for us Filipinos will not be confused. It is acceptable that if we will use ENGLISH language in the school because it is a place of learning. But in the government and courts we should not use ENGLISH language. By this act we insult other FILIPINOS. Why? Let us accept the fact that some of the FILIPINOS are trying hard understanding or speaking in ENGLISH and some of the FILIPINOS are what we call Ã¢â¬Å"mangmangÃ¢â¬ . How can the Ã¢â¬Å"maralitang mga-tiga lungsodÃ¢â¬ understand these things? We should consider their or should I say our capabilities. For some instance, In having a hearing in the congress by speaking in ENGLISH we think that the whole Philippines got it? NO!, considering that some of the topics are not understandable because we canÃ¢â¬â¢t relate because they use such highfaluting words. It is said that Filipinos are the master of the country but how can that be if they canÃ¢â¬â¢t understand what weÃ¢â¬â¢re trying to implement in their land also how can we get their opinions if they canÃ¢â¬â¢t understand it. Second instance, In having trials, mostly fair and poor persons are always convicted due to poverty. If I am in their situation having a trial that I canÃ¢â¬â¢t understand, It is a big insult. To sum this up, In Philippines we should consider first our own before anything else. And solving problems should start in little problems like these because we can fixed thing starting in little not in big ones. And some little things like these is the mode and kind of communication in our country. NEW PROVISION: The national and official language of the Philippines is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existingÃ Philippine and other languages. Filipino and English languages as a medium of official communication of instruction in educational system but In Government and Courts the medium of communication shall be our national language.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Residential Housing Essay KB Home, one of the major housing companies in the market made a statement telling the public that they do not see housing sector to stabilize by this year. Number of housing companies has been acquiring great losses by the end of 2005 as disposable income of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ declines as the consequence of lowering down of per capita income in the economy. According to the President and Chief Executive Officer of KB Home, Jeffrey Mezger, they have suffered to a staggering loss of nearly $10 per share during the first quarter of 2007 (Steverman 1). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Deutsche BankÃ¢â¬â¢s economists, Peter Hopper, said that the housing correction works sluggishly just like a Ã¢â¬Ëslow-motion train wreckÃ¢â¬â¢ which made worse the housing sector of the economy. Moreover, the said loss of KB Home worse than what they have expected. Analysts expects around $7 loss per share which is very far from the $10 per share loss accounted last quarter. Therefore, with the further worsening of the stock prices in the stock market, this only means that there will be no improvement in the coming first quarter of 2008. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã To make the situation worse, there has been a rumor in the market regarding the bankruptcy of Countrywide which supplies loans and mortgages worth 2 million and 9 million respectively. Countrywide suffered from 25 percent losses as of January 8 of this year. Meaning, there would be a shortage on the supply of loan and mortgages in the financial market just in case Countrywide is really approaching to bankruptcy. Moreover, the shortage of supply of loans and mortgages in the economy will only worsen the purchasing power of the consumers, giving way for a further deterioration of demand to housing industry. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One possible reason behind the turmoil in the housing industry would be the oversupply of homes in the market creating a pressure for its prices to decline. By the time price level of housing units starts to decline, profitability of housing companies begins to deteriorate giving way for experiencing a low return on investment in the next quarter. Driven by speculation, investors will start to pull out their stocks in the housing sector causing stock prices to turn down. In this regard, the connection between the oversupply of housing unit in the market with the deterioration of stock prices is already established. Moreover, it is not only the oversupply of housing units in the market that caused the instability of the housing sector. The growing competition also adds up to the growth of the problem. At the end of the day, market analysts still believes that housing sector will not recover this year based from the current degree of losses that housing companies and financial institutions had experienced on the last quarter of 2007. Analysis Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is true that the turmoil in the housing sector started during the last quarter of 2005 when consumers have high disposable income. During then, consumers spent more in the housing market attracting the housing companies to produce more house units next quarter. By the start of the first quarter of 2006, per capita income of consumers starts to decline giving them a limited disposable income for housing sector. At this point, the housing industry experienced oversupply of housing units since companies did not anticipate the deterioration of consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s disposable income. The said oversupply caused the price level of the housing companies to decline causing the return on investment to depreciate which later on forced stock holder to withdraw their stocks in the market. The increasing competition in the housing sector also add up to the lowering down of housing unit prices since companies in this industry starts to compete each other through price competition. Meaning, housing companies tries to lower down the prices of their home units in order to attract more customers. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The negative effects of eh oversupply of housing units will not be that severe if there is only adequate number of financial institutions that will provide loans and mortgages to uplift the purchasing power of the consumers, therefore, improving the demand on the housing industry. But the problem now would be, even financial lenders is also having a hard time providing loans and mortgages due to the low income level of consumers in the market which imposes the threat of bankruptcyÃ to the financial lenders. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It would be best if the government would start making action by offering low interest rate on credit. The federal bank must structuralize a special credit scheme for housing sector customers, e.g. low interest rate on borrowing or longer payment period, in order to solve the problem of over supply on the said industry. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another way by which the government could solve this instability of housing sector would be to provide financial aids to Countrywide which, as what have already pointed out during the first part of the paper, plays a major role in uplifting the purchasing power of consumers though provision of loans and mortgages that can be used in purchasing housing units. The said government aid may be in the form of monetary of fiscal Moreover, the government could also increase the wage rate of the workers in the economy in order to improve the current level of disposable incomes of consumers in the market. By the time the disposable income of consumers increase, they will now have enough money to purchase housing units which will solve the problem regarding the oversupply of home units. Works Cited Steverman, Ben Ã¢â¬Å"Housing: A Fresh Jolt of Bad News.Ã¢â¬ 8 January 2008. Business Week. 11 February 2008 http://www.businessweek.com/investor/content/jan2008/pi2008018_503594.htm?chan=search.
The pest control repeller CHAPTER 1: Introduction The Pest Control Repeller is a device designed to eliminate undesired animals to be appeared in our residential area. These undesired animals are such as rodents, bats and even birds like swallow. Rodents appear in the house not only give rise to hygienes problem, but also causing damage to the properties; they bite clothes and furniture that reside in the house. Bats, on the other hand produce excrements on the roof which may jeopardize the health of the residents stay inside the house, they also make noises during night time and affect residents to sleep. Apart from rodents and bats, birds like swallow which the amount has increases dramatically recently has also causes problem to the residents in a residential area. The great profit and demand of the bird nest in the market has attracted more and more people to invest in this business. Some of the nest farming even built up illegally in a residential area. This indirectly causes other side effects such as hygiene problem, sound po llution and damage to the property. Besides, it was also found that there are more than 60 different transmissible diseases have been associated with birds and their feces. Droppings cost money, both in the daily cleaning process and in lost of business from customers who prefer a dropping-free environment . With the existence of Pest Control Repeller, the problem mentioned can be solved easily without causing negative side effect to the human. In this chapter, there will be a short introduction regarding to the objectives and overview of this project. 1.1 Objective The main objective of the project is to design and construct a Pest Control Repeller which will have the following fundamental features: Able to generate a digital harassment sound which will drive away some selected animals such as rodents, bats and birds. Able to implement the device in a large coverage area. Upon successful implementation of these fundamental features, enhancements are added to the device for better efficiency and effectiveness, this include causing the minimum effects to the human during the operation of the device. Besides, the Pest Control Repeller is designed to produces an intermittent sound so that the undesired animals would not get used to the repetitious sound. The developed product also can be used in a large and open outdoor area as well, such as under the bridge or on the telecommunication towers. This is because cliff swallows frequently colonize these structures and their nests cannot be disturbed until the nesting season has passed. As Swallows and their nests are fully protected under the Wildlife Protection Ordinance 1990 in Malaysia and it is unethical to destroy the nest of a swallow, maintenance and repairing process is force to delay to other periods where swallows have migrated to other places. In a nutshell, the designed Pest Control Repeller is ha ving the objective to help mankind in driving these annoying animals away from causing bad sleeping condition, properties damage, health and safety hazards. 1.3 Project Overview Basically, the Pest Control Repeller is categorized into three major functions, which are rodent repellent, bat repellent and bird repellent. These functions are then further classified into three different modes; where in the first mode; only the rodent and bat repellent are activated, for the second mode, the rodent and bat repellent are activated together with the bird repellent, where the bird repellent will only be triggered if the sensor is activated. Whereas for the third mode, the rodent and bat repellent are activated together with bird repellent and control by manual operation of a user. All of the operations are controlled by a microcontroller named PIC16F877A; the PIC microcontroller generates a series of pulses with different frequencies to drive away certain undesired animals. The series of pulses are formed by a specific period of square wave with alternating high and low condition, by varying the period of this square wave, the desired frequency for the Pest Control Repeller can be achieved. The PIC microcontroller used in the Pest Control Repeller also acts as a media to receive signal from PIR sensor which is later to be processed and produces the respective output signal to trigger the tweeter and strobe light. Besides, the PIC microcontroller also functions to send an output signal to trigger the servo motor which is mounted under the tweeter. Last but not least, the PIC microcontroller also used to produces the alphanumerical character which will be shown on the LCD. The specific frequency signals produced by the PIC Microcontroller are sending to the amplifiers prior to the tweeters. An amplifier is a device for increasing the power of a signal by taking energy from a power supply and controlling the output to match the input signal shape but with larger amplitude. In the designed Pest Control Repeller, a Class B amplifier is used for amplifying the different frequency signal. Class B amplifier circuits are the most general design type found in the audio power amplifiers. The amplified frequency signals are then send to the respective tweeter to produce the specific frequency sound wave for the pest repelling purpose. Apart from the frequency sound waves generated, the Pest Control Repeller can trigger a functioning strobe light and flashing super LED when a pest is detected within the device operating range. A LCD display of 216 characters is used in the project to display the operating modes. Besides, the LCD display also shows the numbers of pest detected within a certain period; this function allows a user to make a statistic to measure the effectiveness of the Pest Control Repeller installed in an area. 1.4 Project Scope and Methodology This project is a combination of hardware prototype with software implementation. In the hardware prototype construction, Express SCH and Express PCB are used for the designation purpose. Express SCH is used to draw a schematic diagram which represents the electrical component used in the Pest Control Repeller system by using graphic symbols rather than realistic pictures. Whereas, Express PCB is used to design the electrical conductive pathways from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate which will then mechanically support and electrically connect all the electronic components require in the Pest Control Repeller system. For the software implementation, MPLAB which serves as a single, unified graphical user interface for C programming is used to program the require instruction into the PIC microcontroller, PICKit 2, which has been an interesting PIC programmer from Microchip, can be use to program the PIC microcontroller. During the designation of hardware prototype, electronic components and device are chosen base on their cost and effectiveness to ensure that the functionality of the Pest Control Repeller to be optimized at the lowest cost. After the components and devices selection are finalized, a primary configuration of the selected components are done on a bread board, testing and debugging process are then performed to ensure the functionality. After ensuring the functionality, the circuit layout is printed on a PCB and the components are soldered on the respective position, the implementation of circuit on a PCB increase the effectiveness of the circuit and reduce the chance of errors to occur. After the hardware fabrication, a program is written to tests and calibrates the prototype to make it functions in a precise and accurate mode. At the last stage of project, debugging process is carrying out to alter and correct the errors. Debugging is a methodical procedure of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects in an electronic hardware to make it behave as expected . Debugging is very time consuming since it detects and corrects the errors instead of merely writing a program. Debugging process will take longer time if the program is written in an improper way. Thus, following the common established rules and good practice when writing a program will greatly reduce the time use in debugging process. More attention is needed when writing a program to make the subsystems independent of each other; this is because debugging tends to be harder when various subsystems are tightly coupled, and changes in one subsystem may cause errors to emerge in another subsystem. 1.5 Thesis Overview The report is divided into 6 chapters where Chapter 1 is a simple introduction that includes with the objective, project overview, project scope and methodology. The report is then followed by Chapter 2, where the theoretical background for this project is discussed in details, such as the animals behavior and effect of digital harassment sound to these animals. Literature review of similar project and improvement of these projects will also be discussed in further. In Chapter 3, the hardware prototype of the components and devices selected are discussed in details. A comparison between similar components and devices is also made to achieve a better effectiveness system at a lower cost. Besides, the function of the selected components and device will be elaborated for better understanding. For Chapter 4, the process in software development is discussed. Flow chart for the programs is shown and explained in details. Besides, software and tools used in the program writing is described for a better understanding. Presentation of data and discussion are combined in chapter 5 where the interpretation of data gathered is discussed. Besides, the problems encountered during conducting the project in both hardware and software also will be elaborate in details. Lastly, conclusion ends the report by providing a summary to the content in the report. It indicates significance, advantages and limitations of the work. The applications of the project and recommendations for future work are included for further reference. Chapter 2: Theoretical Background and Literature Review In this chapter, there will be an introduction to the background of the pests and major issues caused by these pests. Products and techniques used by people in repelling the pests also will be discussed. Their advantages and limitation are being investigated in details so that a comparison can be made between these techniques to further implement the project. Besides, the benefits of the project after the implementation also will be discussed in the last part of this chapter. 2.1 Classical Animal Behavior 2.1.1 Birds Birds play an important role in balancing the ecology by controlling the number of insects and pests in a particular area. However the increasing amounts of birds in a particular area will bring up problems to the residents, this problems are such as hygienes problem, sound pollution, damage to the property and even ecological imbalance. This problem has becomes significant recently when more and more people start to invest in swallow nest farming due to its great profit in the market. Swallows are categorized as gregarious bird species, they tend to breed and build nest at a particular area together. This characteristic has made them become a threat for the residents when they breed in a residential area. The problem even becomes worse when the Cliff Swallows build their nest at telecommunication tower and public construction such as bridge and highway structure. As stated by Jaclyn S.C et al, Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are migratory birds that breed in colonies and f requently nest on highway structures . According to Wildlife Protection Ordinance 1990 in Malaysia, this migrated swallows are consider as endanger species and fully protected under any circumstances. This causes the construction and maintenance process cannot be performed during the nesting season and indirectly leads to economic lost. Besides, it was also found that the excrements of birds like pigeon are the carrier of most fatal diseases. Coghlan (1990) in his article named Pigeons, Pests and People refers birds asrats with wings for the speed of them which can affect an area and transmit diseased spores through their excrements. Diseases such as Toxoplasmosis, Listeriosis, Viral Meningitis, Encephalitis, Salmonella and Paratyphoid are readily spread in places of high pigeon population due to the amount of droppings produced . Apart from causing fatal diseases to mankind, the excrements of birds will also bring down the aesthetic value of buildings due to the large amounts of droppings from the bird habitation and added noise made during the early hours of the morning. Moreover, research also found that bird causes more damage to farms and orchards than any other creature. Each year birds destroy crops and bring significant economic damage to the farmers. For these reasons, humans have been trying to deter bi rds from building, public structure and farm with devices such as scarecrows which were first used in 1592. 2.1.2 Rats Rats are categorized under the rodent family; they cause problems to mankind since decades ago. Rats are found to be an amazing climber on the roof and have good hearing compared to many species. However, rats are colour blind and have poor vision, this causes them have to move their eyesight from side to side in order to see better. Rats are found to be a threat for mankind due to their strong vitality and fast fertility. A female rat is only pregnant for about three weeks, yet they can give birth to 12 babies in one time. Though the hairless babies look very weak, they grow up in a very fast rate and can be independent from their mother in about a month. The average female rat can give birth for 4 to 6 times a year . So it is not surprise when they cause damages to the properties in a short period of time. Rats bite everything they see in the house, this is because they need to grind their teeth from preventing the growth of the sharp teeth and injured themselves. This causes g reat damage to the properties especially for expensive electrical. Rats are found to be the carrier of most fatal diseases; they are the primary carriers of Murine typhus, Leptospirosis, Trichinosis, salmonella, Ratbite fever and plague . The disease caused by rats can spread in a fast rate and very hard to control in a short period of time. Humans are infected by these diseases when they come into contact with food or water which contains the urine of the infected rats. Besides the disease may also be infected to humans when they are bite by a rat. The symptoms of these diseases are fever, flu and soon will soon develop into liver failure or meningitis. Plague is a rat disease spread to mankind by a sick rats fleas or contact with a sick rats bodily secretions. Various kinds of plague can attack the lymph glands, blood and lungs of a human. The Black Death which caused by rats plague was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europes pop ulation, reducing the worlds population from an estimated 450million to between 350 and 375million in 1400. It took 150years for Europes population to recover . Apart from this, rats also causes damage to the agriculture crops, they consume the fruits and crop, such as coconut, cocoa and so forth . 2.1.3 Bats Bats are having the same behavior with migrated birds such as swallows; they usually breed in season and nest in the roof for a period of about four to five months of the year. Same like a bird, bats also bring problems to mankind especially when the quantity is significant. Bats stay in the roof causes sound pollution to the resident stay inside the house, the problem of noise can occurs occasionally and this is always the main problems that caused by the bats. The problem even becomes worse when they stay on the roof of a bedroom. Besides, it was found that some bats have been detected with a rabies-like virus named European Bat Lyssavirus, although this virus is not serious, but it will infects human when a human is bite by the infected bats. Sometimes bats that flying around a building can trigger on a burglar alarms, including those that use passive infrared motion detector, light beams, microwave or ultrasonic detectors. Last but not least, bats also causes damage to the agricu lture crops like birds, some species of the bats will consume fruits and agriculture crops that planted in a farm. 2.2 Literature Review The purpose of the project is to design a Pest Control Repeller system that is effective in repelling the undesired animals to be appeared in the residential area as well as outdoor area such as public structure. In order to achieve the objectives stated, a study is conducted to examine the cost and effectiveness of the available existing products. The advantages and limitations of these existing products are taken into consideration and the most effective criteria of the system will be selected and combined with other advantages in order to construct a more effective Pest Control Repeller. 2.2.1 Bird Repeller Typically, the types of bird repeller are classified into 4 major classes; there are visual system, audio system, light system and chemical system. Apart from the 4 major classes, there are also other bird repelling techniques like habitat modification, electric track system and so forth. Each of the repeller system will be studied and their advantages and limitations are being reviewed. Visual bird repeller is a visual object that is designed to represent a predator to surrounding birds as either a human or a larger bird . Normally, the most common items used in the visual bird repeller system are scarecrows, kites and even corpses of birds. A scarecrow is a physical human-like mannequin which dressed in human attire and place in the farm for deter birds like crows from disturbing and consuming the fruits in the farm. Apart from this, it was also found that any species of bird are naturally afraid of predators such as birds of prey. Hawk Kites are then designed to fly in the sky for protection from the birds infringement. The use of model or actual dead birds in the farm also target to illustrate the signal of danger to other birds. At first, birds will approach the corpse out of curiosity but usually they leave it when they see the unnatural position of the bird. This approach has been widely used in the airport to deter sea gull from approaching the flying are a. Despite of low cost and common used of the visual systems, it was found that they are inefficient in driving the birds away, especially after a long term of period. Once the birds in the surrounding area realize that there is no danger of the visual system, they start to approach the particular area and soon the visual system becomes useless. As a conclusion, most visual deterrents system is found to be efficient within a short term of period; it is recommended that this device is used in conjunction with other device or techniques to be successful for a significant period of time. The audio deterrent system is found to be the most common device that use widely around the world. The audio bird repeller system functions by emitting sounds that will cause stress to the birds. These sounds are such as distress sound recorded from the birds, noises that are audible to the birds, or even loud bang with decibel more than 150dB, this loud bang with decibel of 150dB can be produced from a propane cannons, or also referred as propane gas gun which is controlled by a controller or a motion detector. But, the problem with this gas gun is that the loud and irritating sound may disturb the resident living in the nearby area. Besides, birds will also adapt quickly to the sound which has the same magnitude, pitch and time interval all the time. Propane cannons become ineffective after a period. Apart from this, it was also found that ultrasonic devices are used by some of the people in repelling birds from their residential area. An ultrasonic device can emits ultrasonic soun d range above 22 KHz, which the frequency is not audible by human being, thus many of the manufacturers claimed that the device is suitable for home use since it is inaudible to human. Despite of the superior features provided by this system, there is no evidence shows that ultrasonic devices are capable to drive birds away, and there are plenty of studies show that most species of birds are having the same audible frequency range as human, but do not hear the frequencies above 20kHz. This is the reason why human can hears bird chirping everyday in the morning. Therefore ultrasonic systems are ineffective in deterring birds and should be avoided. Compared to the two methods mentioned above, bio-acoustic devices are found to be the most popular and efficient device among the audio deterrent systems. Bio-Acoustic deterrents are devices that transmit biological significant sounds such as bird alarm and distress calls . In nature, birds use alarm calls when they perceive danger, whi lst distress calls are used when birds are captured, restrained or injured, each call is species specific, however some distress and alarm calls are known to get a response from other species . Besides from using distress call from birds, noises with vary frequencies may also be used as the audio deterrent system. The light deterrent system is widely used in the airport for bird repelling purpose; this system can be classified into strobe light system and laser light system. For strobe light bird deterrent, a rotating or flashing search light is used to stimulus the visual of a bird and causes an unwanted situation for them. Although a static light in the night may attract birds to approach the particular area, a flashing one, however will causes confusion to them and thus achieve the purpose in repelling birds. Studies conducted on light systems have shown that high intensity strobe lights caused birds to take evasive action and move away from some airfields. In the same study it was found that a randomized selection of two strobe frequencies increased the effectiveness over a range of species and that the strobes stopped all bird habitation . The laser light system, on the other hand also represents a well-established method in deterring birds. Diode laser is ideal for bird repelling bec ause of many of its advantages, such as small size, lower power consumption and lower cost . Although the laser repelling system is efficient in drive away the birds, but the equipments needed are expensive. And also, the effectiveness of the lasers are found to be decreased with the increase of light levels, therefore, this repelling method is suitable to use during night time or at a place which is not cover by sunlight. Chemical deterrent system drive birds away by causing an unwanted living environment for birds or by killing them in a direct way by using poison. For the first method, chemical substance is placed at the habitat of birds to make them feel offensive or causes irritation to them. This can be in the form of tactile or in the form of odor. After a period of time, these birds will find that the place is not suitable for habitation or nesting and will soon move to another habitat. For the second method, poison is used to kill the birds from nesting in a particular area and scare away other birds in the same habitat. However, both of the methods are found to be inefficient for a long term period and may lead to other environmental issue. Therefore, the chemical deterrent system is not encouraged to be used in repelling birds either in a housing area or at outside an outdoor area. There are many more other repelling techniques being implement throughout the world, such as habitat modification, electric track, water sprayer and so forth. For habitat modification technique, Spikes deterrents made of strips of plastic or metal with upward pointing stainless steel or plastic spikes can be attached to ledges of buildings . Besides, habitat modification for bird deterrent also often involves in eliminating the roosting or nesting locations of birds. For example, in the control of cliff swallow at public structure like bridge, the habitat of interest is the nesting location. Cliff swallows prefer a nesting place with rough and unpainted surfaces. So, modification can be done based on these criteria, such as anti-perching spines, smooth strips mounted at an angle of at least 45 degree, panels of glass, sheet metal, or paint to create a surface unfavorable for cliff swallow nesting . An evaluation had been carry out by Timothy L.C. in his report named An Autonomous Bird Deterrent System to evaluate the effectiveness of these deterrent system based on their cost, physical requirements, stealth, automation ability and area covered. A ranked positional method was used in the evaluation with each category being weighted out of a total of ten points by its importance and then a rating being given under each category out of five for each individual deterrent. In the result shown below, it was found that the light deterrent system is having the highest score compared to other system with laser deterrent represent the most effective repeller. The ranking is then followed by the audio deterrent system. 2.2.2 Mouse Repeller Typically, People use mouse trap to catch mouse appears in the house, however, it is not the efficient way to repel them away if the quantity is significant, since the mouse trap only can trick them for once but not for a long term period. Mouse poison, on the other hand, also use widely by people in controlling the undesired mouse. Poisons works fine in killing mouse since it plays to what a mouse is searching for, such as food and water. There are two types of mouse poison available in the market; with the first type are having the immediate reaction and the second type that takes effect after some time. However, both kinds of poisons contain fatal elements such as warfarin, diphacinone, pival, chlorophacinone, or fumarin. Besides, chemical substances also used to drive mouse away by causing them an unwanted situation in their habitat. These chemical substances will make them feel offensive or irritating and soon they will leave the habitat due to the unpleasant living environment. In the farm or some agriculture land, predators are used by the farmer to reduce the consumption of agriculture crops by mouse and thus repelling them away. Predators are one of natures methods in control and repel mouse away from the farm. There are many native and domestic predators that feed on rat and mouse, such as snake, owl, hawk and so forth, it was found that hawk and owl parents kill many more rodents when they are feeding their hungry broods . Domestic cats, dogs, and ferrets help in controlling and repelling rodents in some situations. In general, dogs and cats are the most effective predator at preventing an infestation than eliminating a current population. This is because they are better able to catch and kill an invading rodent that does not know any escape routes, than an established animal that knows various escape points . Recently, the ultrasonic mouse repeller has becomes popular for home use application. These ultrasonic mouse repellers are selling like hot cake in the market due to their advantages compared to other traditional repellers. It is well know that pests such as rats and mouse are repelled by ultrasonic frequency in the range of 30 kHz to 50 kHz. An Ultrasonic mouse repeller utilizes advanced state of the art technology and functions by transmitting an influential range of ultrasonic sound in the frequency of 45 KHz. The intermittent, high intensity frequencies and pulse sequences were created to output at known hearing sensitivity ranges of pests, such as rat and mouse. It was found that rodents, like mouse or rat, will leave the environment where the ultrasonic device is installed for a less stressful area. These sound wave frequencies are inaudible to humans and pets like cat and dog . A research named Efficacy Test Protocols for Evaluation of Ultrasonic Rodent Repellent was conducted by Stephen A. Schumake et al. from Denver Wildlife Research Center in examining the efficiency of the ultrasonic device. In the test mentioned, controlled laboratory and field test protocols were developed to assess the repellent efficacies of six commercially manufactured ultrasonic rodent repellent devices. The laboratory test structure (68.7 sq m) was divided into two rooms (32.5 sq m each) with a central harborage area (3.5 sq m) containing a colony of 12 wild Norway rats (Rattus orvegicus). For each test, an ultrasonic device was attached to the end of one room and rat activity (oat consumption, packet damage, photocell counts) is measured during 1-week baseline and 2-1/2-week test periods. Field test structures varied in floor area (6.5 to 197 sq m) and were either made by metal or wood construction. All contained existing Norway rat, house mouse (Mus musculus), or field mouse ( Peromyscus maniculatus) infestations. No other rodent control techniques were conducted at these sites other than the application of selected ultrasonic devices. Rodent activities (packet damage, food consumption, rodent tracks) were measured twice per week during three successive 3-week intervals with devices operating only during the second interval. Repeated measurement of variance and chi square were used to statistically evaluate the reliability of ultrasound effects. In the end of the test rodents under test could either leave the buildings or move to alternate non-ultrasonically treated areas in all the cases stated . Apart from that, light system or strobe light may also repel the mouse away from the house since rodent families prefer a darker living environment and they usually move in darkness. As a conclusion, an ultrasonic mouse repeller works more efficient and better compared to other repelling method. The use of poison which causes the death of the mouse may lead to environmental issue when a predator or a pet consume the death mouse. Additionally, neither traps nor poisons provide a long-term solution; mouse will simply increase breeding to replace rodents lost to poisons or traps. 2.2.3 Bats Repeller The generally accepted method to prevent bats from invasion is exclusion by netting or trapping. Netting and trapping, however, has resulted in the occasional inadvertent killing of bats. Similar to bird and mouses repelling cases; chemical repellent is also used by people in repelling bats. Naphthalene (crystals or flakes) is the only registered chemical which can be used as a bat repellent for indoor roosts. Naphthalene should be spread on the floor or applied between the walls, using about 2.3 kg (5 lb) for every 60 mÃ ³ (2,000 ftÃ ³) which should be adequate to treat an average attic . Light illumination, on the other hand also shows a better effect in repelling the bats away from the house. This is because bats need a gloomy place for habitation during day time. This characteristic of bats makes them easily get repelled by a strong flashing light or strobe light. Last but not least, an ultrasonic device also being used by people in repelling bats. It is believed that the ultrasonic high frequency sound waves can interfere the bats ability to navigate and causing confusion to them. It was evident to shows that an ultrasonic bats repeller did agitate, confuse and disorient the bats causing them to fly more erratically and to relocate away from the device . As a conclusion, light illumination and ultrasonic devices are found to be an efficient wa
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Riding the Train (Description Essay ENC1101) Anytime a person experiences something for the first time, that experience can reside in their mind forever. Their first kiss, first love, and first look at the sunrise may permanently float among their cherished memories. My mind contains many of these memories. Although my first train ride occurred over 15 years ago, I still recall every wonderful detail from preparing for the trip to discovering the inside of the train and the beautiful five hour ride. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It was a breezy day in the summer of 1985 and after spending a week visiting my grandparentÃ¢â¬â¢s home in Sebring, Florida, I prepared for my first train ride home. Recalling many old movies IÃ¢â¬â¢ve watched with tearful lovers embracing on rain-soaked platforms, I carefully chose my train-riding outfit: a simple, tailored white dress, a pair of lace gloves reaching only to my wrists and a braided straw hat complete with a thick red sash tied neatly around the crown with an exploding bow draping down behind me. I settled into the back of my grandfathers Cadillac and my mind filled with visions of how my first train ride would be. Arriving at the station, I tearfully kissed my grandparents goodbye a bit more dramatically than necessary. As I strolled confidently towards the train platform, I felt like Audrey Hepburn or Ingrid Bergman and was quite certain many eyes rested upon my grace and followed me through the crowded terminal. Pushing open the heavy glas. ..
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Art of Manipulation in Homer's Odyssey Ã They sit, entranced in the magic of his words. He pauses. On the edge of their seats, they await in silence his next utterance. The one spoken of is not a bard or man refined in the art of song, but rather a warrior scarred and hardened through intense conflict. He has a special mastery of the spoken language that enraptures his audience and a gift that endows him to command and persuade them without physical force. This man is a manipulator of words, a subtle combatant. The proverbial "He" represents Odysseus in Homer's epic adventure The Odyssey. Youthful Athenian men gained wisdom and admonitions about the machination of words by studying Odysseus's shrewd intellect, and in contrast the use of persuasion by Eurylochus whose ignorance brought about the demise of their comrades. The art of manipulation is vital to the survival and prosperity of men and women throughout The Odyssey. Odysseus exemplifies this distinctive quality, learning through his adventures how to better meet his needs through cleverly chosen words rather than vehement combat. Odysseus first reveals this gift of the gods, when he used trivial flattery and an appearance of humble supplication in approaching the Princess Nausicaa on the isle of the Phaecians. "At [her] knees," he comes before Princess Nausicaa cleverly appealing to her with questioning disbelief of whether she was "some goddess or a mortal woman." He then proceeds to draw upon her desire to wed with words that left questioning his own marital status, and sounded as though he were envious of the "most blessed among [the Phaecians] who with his wedding gifts would win [her]," the awe inspiring Nausicaa (89). At this moment in his life, Odysseu... ...e, the ability to manipulate words for the means of persuasion do not always have positive results. In the hands of the ignorant and irrational, persuasion becomes an evil that plagues all those who come in contact with and conform to it, but when used by the knowledgeable and thoughtful, manipulation can provide for the betterment of a society, such as the peace that ensues Odysseus's vengeance when Athena persuades them to stop the futility. Homer teaches young Athenians to be aware of the dangers of manipulation, rhetoric, and persuasion, but he also shows that a man who can do such effectively is deemed a leader, and that those who cannot are mere followers. Works Cited and Consulted Crane, Gregory. Calypso: Backgrounds and Conventions of the Odyssey,Ã Frankfurt, Athenaeum 1988 Homer. The Odyssey. trans. Robert Fagles. Penguin Books. New York. 1996.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
cathedrals Throughout the centuries, beautiful Medieval cathedrals have been towering above every building and till this day, still survive with their astonishing appearance. Their structure resemble the power and glory of heavens. Today, they are known as "prayers in stone" because they are respected as holy places. Taking literally hundreds of years to build these great Gothic buildings, the skillful carpenters and masons responsible for the construction are respected for constructing these powerful buildings that tell us about the past (Macdonald 1). The construction of the cathedrals were more than hundreds of years (Macdonald 14). The overall shape of appearance was planned out before any construction was started. The contractors were usually peasants of the low class. Cathedrals were built on old church sites throughout Europe and the world to spread the religion of Christianity. There were many architectural styles for the churches. Carpenters used long lasting materials such as stone and strong wood. Some of the best stone came from France. Cranes and pulleys powered by men and animals were used to haul these stones, especially in the dangerous job of quarrying. The appearance of the cathedrals were magnificent. As one of the largest buildings of its time period, they represented the heavens in which people believed was peaceful and serene. Walls and pillars were massive structures enclosing hundreds of yards. Stone arches and gargoyles were put in various places for decoration. The elevating towers on top of the cathedrals were called "fingers" pointing to heaven. Inside these enormous "fingers," immense bells and clocks were placed. Stained-glass windows on the sides describe the lord, Jesus, and his life. The ever going ceilings and their paintings represent heaven. Statues symbolized sacred priests of the church (Macdonald Intro.). The purpose of these cathedrals were to praise and thank God. People offer prayers and offerings to God at the great cathedrals thinking it would bring a prosperous and healthy life. In the Middle Ages, these "prayers in stone" were made to spread Christianity throughout the world. Being the BishopÃ¢â¬â¢s church, the greatest centers of studies were inside the depths of the cathedrals. The pope answered the most theorized questions about Christianity. Cathedrals and the people inside implored that God is the most important part of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life and should be thanked for everything.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Aim: Using the procedures of a standard acid base titration lab, the goal of this experiment is identifying the amount of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) that is presented in a calcium carbonate substance presented by our teacher. Hypothesis: Due to any unknown substance that we encounter in the chemistry room, we must take serious precaution, as the substance may very well be highly contagious and dangerous to smell, touch or taste directly. The only ability that we posses that can be used to observer this substance is our vision that is going to help us in determining the concentration of the substance. Although that with vision only, it will not suffice the need that is necessary to make that judgment as we need quantitative data (finding the exact concentration of calcium carbonate). Unless we have prior knowledge about this substance, the processes of a titration must be used. My hypothesis begins that this has about 60% concentration. Variables: Independent Variable: There is none in this experiment. The goal of this lab is not to include any variables that will change the concentration of the calcium carbonate. We need constant results for the concentration of the calcium carbonate, as that will determine the actual concentration of the calcium carbonate in our substance. Dependent Variable: The volume needed to titrate the calcium carbonate solution by using the phenolphthalein indicator. Though it is a clear substance, the indicator will change its color into pink when the solution becomes a base from an acid. By determining the amount of hydrochloric acid is needed to change the color of the solution, we can determine the concentration of calcium carbonate through some calculations. Controlled Variables: 1. The Distilled Water: The distilled water will be the only water that will be used during the entire experiment. The distilled water was prepared and resented by our teacher. 2. The calcium carbonate substance: The calcium carbonate substance was constant throughout the entire experiment. 3. The Hydrochloric Acid: The hydrochloric acid was one of the main components of this experiment. Therefore this acid was also prepared and presented by the teacher. 4. All Equipment: All the same equipments such as the pipette and the filter paper were used throughout the experiment. Apparatus: * Unknown white powdered substance * 50cm3 burette * 3 250cm3 Erlenmeyer flask * 200cm3 for hydrochloric acid * 0.1M of Sodium Hydroxide * Burette clamp * Retort stand * Distilled water * Goggles * Filter paper * A funnel * Phenolphthalein indicator * A scale * Paper towel * A spoon * Pipette * Pipette sucker * White paper Method: 1. First set up the retort stand and the retort clamp as indicated by the diagram below. Of course, the flask must be prepared in the subsequent steps. However unlike the diagram, place a white piece of paper beneath the flask so that the color change becomes more easily visible. 2. After placing the paper towel and scaling the scale, measure out approximately 10.0 grams of the unknown substance and record the exact mass 3. Add 200cm3 of 1.00-mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid and stir until the reaction is complete. 4. Filter the solution and withdraw 10cm3 using a pipette and make up to 100 cm3 in a volumetric flask. 5. Titrate 10cm3 portions against a standard 0.1M NaOH using the phenolphthalein indicator. 6. Record both quantitative and qualitative data. 7. Repeat the process of titration three times. Observation (Data Collection): Measurements: * Mass of Calcium Carbonate solution: * Burette: Calcium Carbonate solution made using 250cm3volumetric flask with an uncertainty of ?0.5cm3 * Pipette: 25.0cm3 of 0.100moldm-3 NaOH(aq) ?0.04cm3 Chemical Equations: Before we delve into the calculations, it is best that we list the necessary chemical equations of this lab. One must note that in this experiment, that there were two chemical reactions. Firstly, the first experiment occurs when the white substance mixed with the HCl. The second chemical reaction took place when the HCl solution meets with the .1M of NaOH 1. 2. Qualitative Data: Description of the substance used and produced Hydrochloric Acid Clear, viscous, Calcium Carbonate White, powder form Phenolphthalein Indicator Clear solution, comes in a bottle, add as drops Solution Produced in the end Bubbly, white liquid, most of the unknown mixture dissolved Clear/pink throughout. Quantitative Data: Measurement Recorded During the Experiment Trial 1 2 3 4* Initial Burette Reading (ml?0.05cm3) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Final Burette Reading (ml?0.05cm3) 5.45 5.90 5.60 5.40 *To note, for the calculations below, the supervisor at the time suggested the best data to use would be the average of the HCl used because the numbers found were very consistent. Calculations The following steps were taken so to find the % by mass of CaCO3 in the mixture 1. The moles of acid presented in 200cm3of 1.00 mol dm-3hydrochloric acid. 2. The moles of acid presented in 10cm3of the acid solution titrated. 0.00056molof HCl 3. Multiply the volume present in the volumetric flask. 4. The total moles acids remaining after the reaction with CaCO3 5. Subtract the value in 4 from that obtained in 1 to find moles acid used. 6. The stochiometric equation for the reaction of HCl and CaCO3 Hydrochloric acid+Calcium carbonateÃ¢â¬â>Calcium chloride+water+Carbon dioxide -Therefore the molar ratio is 1 mole of calcium carbonate to 2 moles of hydrochloric acid 7. Using this and the value in 5 to calculate the moles of CaCO3 present. Then calculate the mass of CaCO3 8. Using the value found in step 7 and the original mass of the mixture, here is the calculation to find percent of the mixture is made up of CaCO3 Uncertainties: * * * * Total Uncertainty= Conclusion: This experiment in general was very interesting. During this lab, I was able to learn of how we can identify the amount of a substance by knowing the concentration and volume of another. We were able to do so as we knew the moles and concentration of sodium hydroxide that had enabled us to find the unknown concentration of calcium carbonate. Because the actual percentage of CaCO3 was not given, we must concur that the accuracy of this lab has been affected and therefore must be assessed by our uncertainty percentage. The percent of uncertainties represents the desultory errors that may have occurred, which either may make the measurements bigger or smaller than the accepted value, due to imprecise measurement. One way to avoid future random errors, better equipment may be needed, or repetition of the measurements. Despite the uncertainties based on lab equipments and other mediums of measurements, one of the biggest possible sources of error lies in the systematic errors of this lab, especially finding the exact endpoint. Though the pink color should indicate when the endpoint is reached, in trial 2 and 3, the solution turned a faint pink color and my partners and I did not know whether that faint pink indicated the endpoint. This could have resulted in a measurement lower than the actual value. To possibly improve this source of error, I believe more time and trials should be allotted to the students. When I was doing my experiment, we were only given a single class time to follow the procedures, write down our notes, and clean up our experiment. If more time was allotted, then higher quality recordings could be made. This would then give us a clearer idea when the endpoint actually is. Next, though it is unlikely, to improve this lab we may have to rinse the burettes and other flasks prior to performing this lab. In my chemistry classroom, burettes and flasks are arranged so that the clean ones are clearly seen and labeled while the used ones are in the sink. However it could be possible that another student may have placed an unclean burette in the cabinet full of clean equipments. Therefore, for accuracy purposes, all equipment should be washed using soap and tissues. Reviewing and understanding the errors can significantly improve this experiment. Though my hypothesis of the concentration being 60% calcium carbonate was wrong, this experiment taught me the value and usefulness of the process of titration.
Friday, August 16, 2019
A Journey A Life is all abort accepting how our lives have turned out. Sometimes life makes us wonder whether we have made the right decisions or not. All the decisions life throws at us is only to make us stronger as a person. After we have made a big decision all of us come do doubt whether we have chosen the right thing to do. This mental journey of self-assessment is what the protagonist, Mary, experiences in the short story Ã¢â¬Å"A JourneyÃ¢â¬ by Colm Toibin from 2006 Mary has had a hard life, she has seen how hard can be, she has a clinically depressed son, and a paralyzed husband and during the long drive back from the hospital whith her son in the back seat, she think about how her life has turned out to be. The story is told by a limited third person narrator, and seen from the mother, MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. By observing MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, it becomes easy to see how much her choices in life has meant to her and how much she still think about them. Especially when it comes to the sonÃ¢â¬â¢s diseases Ã¢â¬â it is something she is very concerned with. Her main concern is whether she and her husband had something to do with his condition. Ã¢â¬Å"Were they to blame, she and Seamus, and in what way, for the fact that their twenty-year-old son whom she was driving home from the hospital had spent the last seven months there suffering from silence, as she called it; the doctors called it depressionÃ¢â¬  Mary searches her memory to find answers to the many questions she had build op in her mind though the years. Through a number of flashbacks she is trying to find some clues as to what could be the cause of her and David's condition. It is questions like whether Mary and Seamus perhaps gas spent to little time at home while Mrs. Redmond babysat David, and whether hey should not have sold the old shop. Mary and DavisÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship is tens; Mary is trying to break the ice between them by asking David for a cigarette. The relationship between them develops throughout the journey from the hospital. Even though Mary has made some wrong decisions in life, she does not complain about it, but she tries to repair her relationship with her son. Mary is stopped in her life as she stops the car, and she is now trying to change things, starting with the relationship with his son. This goes hand in hand with the poem Lucinda Matlock by Edgar Lee Masters' from 1916. In the poem the speaker also talks about how she has lived her life, and how there has been good times and bad times. She has enjoyed her life, but she has still lost eight of her twelve children. Lucinda argues that you have to take charge of your life and take the good times with the bad. As she finishes her poem, Ã¢â¬Å"it takes life to love lifeÃ¢â¬  When she decides to stop the car, she finally makes a breakthrough in their communication. Mary is not only using this mental journey to think about her son, but also about her life with her husband, whom she thought she knew. Once again she thinks back on her life with Seamus and thinks about all the happy times they had together. Seamus is much like David, he does not give her any attention. The thoughts Mary deals with in regards to her son and husband are very well illustrated in Andrew Sean Greer's The Story of a Marriage from 2008. Ã¢â¬Å"We think we know the ones we love [Ã¢â¬ ¦] But what we love turns out to be a poor translation a translation we ourselves have made, from a language we barely knowÃ¢â¬  She feels that they ignore her and do not appreciate her, not only by her by husband, but also by her son. Mary is moving one step closer to taking her fate into her own hands. Finally it dawns on Mary, that no matter how many downs you have in life, it will still be her life. And when her life has not come to an end yet, she is forced to take her life into her own hands and decide whether she will live life with two people who do not show their love for her or whether she will take a decision to live a life alone. We as readers do not know the ultimate ending to the short story, as it is an open ending. It is up to the reader to decide how it should end. B Flashback is one way for the author to tell whether an episode has happened in the past that has significance for the present. It gives us as readers a better understanding of why Mary thinks like she does. The flashbacks in Ã¢â¬Å"A JourneyÃ¢â¬ are not very long, but despite that they give away a lot of information. Some of MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s flashback shows a life with happiness, but some of them do also show a life with difficultness. The first flashback, we get in the short story is when you get an insight into David's childhood from Mary's point of view. Because we see it from Mary's point of view we need to make our own impressions. The flashbacks deals with the important things in her life, most of them are a contrast to how her life has become. The Flashback is about her dead mother in her father's old shop, the rather pleasant experience of taking care of here father on his deathbed, and joyous occasions with her son and husband. Some of the flashback shows a life with happiness, but some of them do also show a life with difficultness. An example of a one of the positive flashback could be when she imagined the time where her father bought a house to her and Seamus. This flashback shows us that she had a wonderful life with Seamus before he got sick Ã¢â¬Å"She pictured as well their first sighting of the old two-story house beside the school that her father had bought for them when they got married. She remembered the atmosphere inside the house the day they went to look at it [Ã¢â¬ ¦]Ã¢â¬  All the flashback, we get in the story come on the trip home from the hospital with her son. She sees herself in him and want him to get out of his little shell, so he can experience the wonderful world we actually live in. She knows how it feels to live a hard life. She got over her mother's death, so he need to get over his father's illness Ã¢â¬â If it is the reason why he is so mentally closed. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â  P. 1 L 30-33  p 6 l. 22 Text 2  P 7. L 1-3 text 3  P 2. L 55