Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Media ethicss Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Media ethicss - Essay Example For Aristotle, proper understanding of and grateful attitude towards wealth, honor, virtue, pleasure, and friendship is what is needed for human to live well. Through appropriate behavior and good upbringing, one must learn the ability to understand, choose, and decide which conduct is best for an occasion. This, of course, should be supported by logical reasoning --- a power that all human beings are capable of. Aristotle also believes that practical wisdom cannot be acquired by following general guidelines. Through practice, every individual should learn the social, emotional, and reflective skills that allow him/her to act in ways that are appropriate for each unique event (Bertrand, 22). Per Kant, it is the cause for doing a certain action, rather than the outcome of the deed, that gives it a moral value. Kant's renowned statement regarding duty is "Act according to the belief that you choose and can do so as to make it your entire principle." (Bertrand, 45) On the other hand, countering Kant's principle on ethics is utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is the thought that a behavior's role in producing advantage for all is the moral value of the deed. Advantage for all involves the summed pleasure or satisfaction for everybody. It means that the outcome establishes the value of any behavior --- the ends justify the means (Bertrand, 25). PluralPluralism Pluralism is about different values. This ethics model asserts that there are several differing values existing in a diversely peopled world. These values are called duties, and they are unspoken guidelines so every individual's behavior will not threaten other people's happiness and life (Patterson and Wilkins, 12). This ethics model acknowledges the unique roles people play in their every day lives, and the similarly differing values people believe in based on these diverse roles in the society (Bertrand, 29). Commutarianism Commutarianism, on the other hand, places social equality as its guiding principle (Patterson and Wilkins, 14). As every individual is a part of a larger society, it asserts that every one should be sensitive to the consequences of their every action. These actions, must be beneficial not only for themselves, but for the entire society. Communitarianism stresses the relationship of the individual to the society and the correlation of the different social systems --- economic, legal, etc. This ethics model is applicable in evaluating the role of the media in the society, since per Patterson and Wilkins, it enhances the accomplishments of the media as a whole and eliminates possible rivalry among them (15). Surname 3 Ethical Issues in Reporting the Truth Chapter 2: "Taste in Photojournalism" and "Too many Bodies, Too Much Blood" In this case studies, the media had a hard time reporting the truth due to differences in moral sensibilities. A photo journalist may have a hard time distinguishing what is right and moral and what is considerate and moral. Pluralism is very obvious in this case study as different individuals who play different roles may value things at different levels. What may be deemed as a responsible publishing of a photo to warn society may be considered harsh or insensitive towards the feelings of the photo's

Monday, October 28, 2019

Stand Up And Speak Out Sociology Essay

Stand Up And Speak Out Sociology Essay What do you do when you know a friend, sister, mother, or child is being abused, mistreated, and neglected? Often times, the answer to this question is nothing. Women from all over are being abused, and no one has a voice to stand up for them. What is the fear of lending a hand, offering shelter, or listening to a story, when the outcome could be a life saved? The violence that young girls and women face goes largely unnoticed by a vast majority of people within society, and small numbers stand up for the cause to fight the abuse that females endure. Women around the world are still being treated unfairly, the justice system has failed them, and they are controlled by a mechanism called fear. I have been doing a lot of research on violence against women, and I have had a very close encounter with a type of violence that women face every day. Through the numerous amounts of research, personal testimony ¿Ã‚ ½s, and videos, I have realized that violence against women only has one requirement: being female. Violence against women does not focus on black or white, rich or poor, young or old, or even married or single. According to the National Organization for Women, Domestic Violence is defined as a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner. There are many different forms of abuse that women and girls can suffer from, and stepping up is the only way to stop it. There are many different types of abuse that women endure that range from verbal abuse to physical abuse. However, one of the most prominent types of abuse is physical violence. Many women from across the world are controlled by physical violence inflicted by men, and even in some cases women. A Safe Place has reported that about every nine seconds, a woman is physically abused by her husband. The World Health Organization has reported that between 16% and 52% of women have been assaulted by an intimate partner. In a recent article that I read about battered wife who kill, this woman ¿Ã‚ ½s husband would beat her for bills coming at the same time, forgetting to pick up something from the store or even giving the wrong answer to a question that he asked. A Safe Place also mentions that 95% of assaults on spouses or ex-spouses are committed by men against women. The women that are being physically abused are dealing with being beaten with objects, burnt with cigarettes, being punched , getting kicked, and even being spit on. The abusers in the cases stop at nothing to harm the intimate partners. Many people that abuse in intimate relationships, are just seeking to be in control of the relationship. It is stated in Gendering Violence,  ¿Ã‚ ½For feminists, power and control are the core of male violence ¿Ã‚ ½ (McLeod, and Gilgun 167-193). We live in a world where gender roles are still embedded in a vast majority of people ¿Ã‚ ½s thoughts and minds. A women ¿Ã‚ ½s work is supposed to be cooking, cleaning, and taking care of the children. In addition to this, women are expected to be passive and obedient to the every command of her husband or intimate other. This control mechanism that men strive so hard to have, is why many women are abused to date. This is typically referred to as hegemonic masculinity, which according to Wikepedia refers to the belief in the existence of a culturally normative ideal of male behavior. In Gramsci ¿Ã‚ ½s Prison Notebooks, hegemony as originally formulated is about the winning and holding of power (McLeod and Gilgun 167-193). Power and control is what the integrity of a woman is worth to some men. A very controversial topic of violence against women in intimate relationships is marital rape. Some men believe that women have to always be willing and ready to perform sexual acts, and some women believe that it is not rape as well. Being woken out of your sleep, being touched when you don ¿Ã‚ ½t want to, and being forced into sexual activity with a partner all fall under the category of rape. I have read several articles where women are sleeping with the person that they are in a relationship with and awaken out of their sleep to a body on top of them or wandering hands. It seemed that it took to be in the situation to actually feel how these women did, but the women in the articles felt violated just as they would if it was a stranger. In the National Violence Against women survey, approximately 25% of women said they were raped and/or physically assaulted by a current or former spouse, cohabiting partner, or date in their lifetimes. Rape itself, which has been around for age ¿Ã‚ ½s, dates back to slave days. People of Caucasian backgrounds would rape black women to enforce control over the black men. It left them hopeless, with a feeling that they could not do anything to protect their women. Even to this day, rape is a major problem for women and young girls. According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, which includes unreported rapes to the police, 232,960 women in the U.S. were raped or sexually assaulted in 2006 (National Organization for Women). Rapes are rarely reported; in fact the FBI estimates that only 37% of all rapes are reported to the police. Another disturbing fact is that in 2000, nearly 88,000 children in the United States experienced sexual abuse. (ACF 2002). Not even our children are safe, which is who we strive to protect and keep out of harms way each day. From testimonies that I have overheard, majority of the child sexual abusers are family members, and sometimes the father of t he child. The women that I heard these stories from were adults, where the sexual abuse occurred years ago. The abuse that these women suffered as children continues to haunt them many years later. These child abusers don ¿Ã‚ ½t realize the scar that they are leaving on the women and young girls that they are violating. A common thread in all of the different types of violence that I have previously introduced, are all controlled by fear. Fear is what feeds the abusive nature of these men and women, who are inflicting abuse among women and girls. Fear has caused women not to come forward in reporting what is going on with the abuse in their households. Women fear their safety and the safety of their children. Women fear being left alone with no resources, money, or family to assist with the leaving process. Women also fear being embarrassed or turned away from family or friends because of what they have experienced. According the to Bureau of Justice Statistics, only 36% of rapes, 34% of attempted rapes, and 26% of sexual assaults were reported to the police in 1992-2000 (Renninson). I go to say that women are still treated unequal because of the multiple variations of abuse that women endure every day. Not only does a significant other abuse some women; they are also abused by a justice system that is solely based around the hegemonic male figure that I have previously mentioned. When a father sexually abuses his child, the blame for this occurring is placed on a mother for not protecting her child. The blame is therefore taken off of the perpetrator, and is instead put onto another one of his victims. Since mothers are supposed to nurture and protect, it is not in the norm of our society for anything to happen to our children. I have recently watched a video where children have come forward and admitted that their father was sexually abusing them, and custody was ripped from these mothers. I ¿Ã‚ ½m not talking about unproven or undocumented allegations, these children have seen plenty of doctors who have verified with courts that misconduct was going on. But because court systems are based around men, the thought of a father wanting to take care of his children ultimately deems him the fit parent. Judges didn ¿Ã‚ ½t care one bit about what these children were going through, because fathers just wouldn ¿Ã‚ ½t behave in this manner. In Regulating Womanhood, it was stated  ¿Ã‚ ½children tend to be safest from sexual abuse in the absence of men, but it is in part men ¿Ã‚ ½s separation from children which makes them a threat when they return ¿Ã‚ ½ (Regulating Womanhood: Historical Essays on Marriage, Motherhood and Sexuality 53-77). A mother is expected to keep the child away from the abusive situation no matter what her stability situation may be. Another injustice that women are facing is a lack of protection, to assist them in leaving a bad situation. If you are a prostitute, lesbian, handicapped, or deaf, your protection services are pretty much limited. Shelters don ¿Ã‚ ½t have the proper equipment to assist deaf or handicapped victimized women, and they turn away lesbians and prostitute. Does protection from a violent situation come with a face, a sexual preference, or a completely functioning body? If we cant attempt to protect every kind of women being victimized what are we really doing? Doesn ¿Ã‚ ½t every women deserve to be treated with the same respect and dignity as the next? Women are scared to leave an abusive situation when the reality is that they may have no money, no food, or a warm place to sleep at night. So turning away minority women is hurting us as a whole, not just as individuals. Have you ever jaywalked, played your music too loud, or parked your car on a street all night? The offenses just named have the equivalent charge as punching your girlfriend in the face or breaking your wife ¿Ã‚ ½s ribs. What does that say to you? Speaks of one of the most injustices that plenty of women face everyday. Cheryl Winters recited,  ¿Ã‚ ½ It is hard for abused women to find justice, you see, when our lives hold the same value as someone found guilty of vagrancy ¿Ã‚ ½. If abusing your significant other holds the same consequences as a misdemeanor, what does that speak to men but of the minor value of a woman? Things implemented to help protect women, are actually benefiting men help get around the system. I ¿Ã‚ ½m sure once or twice you have come across stories or headlines about battered women who kill. These are the women who saw no other way out than the kill their intimate partners. These women feel that this is the night that he is going to kill me. This is when the mentality of  ¿Ã‚ ½rather him than me ¿Ã‚ ½ mentality begins to kick in. The opinion of certain men about the dominant role that is associated with the hegemonic role is so disturbing. William Blackstone many years ago stated  ¿Ã‚ ½ if the baron kills his feme it is the same as if he had killed a stranger or any other person; but if the feme kills her baron, it is regarded by the laws as a much more atrocious crime, as she not only breaks through the restraints of humanity and conjugal affection, but throws off all subjection to the authority of her husband ¿Ã‚ ½ (Schneider). This again results back to the control that man is supposedly entitled to, and it shows how strong the belief was in the dominance of man. Main arguments in women who kill their partners are battered women syndrome and or self-defense. Schneider stated that work on self-defense for battered women who kill has been premised on the notion that self-defense requirements of reasonableness, imminent danger, and equal force are sex biased. I completely agree with this statement seeing as equal force between a man and woman is highly unlikely and the fact that a woman is acting out of the norm of a woman ¿Ã‚ ½s traditional role is unreasonable. In plenty articles and movies that I have viewed and read, women are getting charged more harsh and men more lenient. Actually Schneider has an article where a man got 18 months in a work release program for killing his wife after catching her sleeping with another man. The judge stated that  ¿Ã‚ ½ he could only imagine nothing that would provoke an uncontrollable rage greater than this: for someone who is happily married to be betrayed in your personal life, when you ¿Ã‚ ½re out working to support the spouse ¿Ã‚ ½ (Schneider 117). Here we see once again an exception for a man to violate his intimate partner, even if it results in killing her. Since a woman is supposed to accept openly that her partner is cheating on her, for her to act in killing is atrocious, but for a man to act in the heat of the moment is absolutely normal. What ¿Ã‚ ½s acceptable for a man is of course unacceptable for a woman. I have learned that more needs to be done to protect the women in our country. The things we value and believe in need to be change to fit the new way of living. It has become clear to me, that men value money, control, and structure more than they value of women. We need to do more to continue and widen protection for women. We need to learn how to stand in, step up, and speak out!

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Genetics of Autism Essay -- Autism in our DNA

Autism is a condition, or "disorder" that affects many people. Autism strikes at will, when and where it wants. Unlike Downs Syndrome or other birth "defects," Autism leave no marks on those that it strikes. In fact, Autism takes pride in the ability to infiltrate a child's life, while leaving him or her strikingly handsome. Many people may not even know that Autism is there. They blame the child for what it cause him or her to do. This is Autism and it do as it please. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a general term for a group of complex disorders of brain development. They can be categorized, in many ways, by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors. ASD can be associated with intellectual disability, difficulties in motor coordination and attention and physical health issues such as sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances. Some people with ASD thrive in music, math, visual skills and art. The acute signs of autism and symptoms of autism tend to appear between the ages of 2 to 3 years old. (Autism Speaks) http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-LCvYe3MSx68/T6f9sZRTw1I/AAAAAAAAFcE/ZEIaXXZohkw/s1600/autism-spectrum-conditions.jpg Figure 1 Figure 1 shows the variants of autism spectrum disorders. In many cases children are either diagnosed with either Autism or PDD-NOS (Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified). Statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identify around 1 in 88 American children are diagnosed with autism, additionally exhibiting that autism is four to five times more prevalent among boys than girls. Regime autism statistics suggest that prevalence rates have incremented 10 to 17 percent annually in recent years. ... ...was diagnosed with PDD-NOS, which is a type of autistic disorder that is utilized for "rigorous and pervasive impairment in the development of reciprocal convivial interaction, but the criteria are not met for a categorical autistic disorder. In the early components of this year, his parents had genetics test done on him to optically discern if his twin brother could possibly have the trait to have autism. It was found that he has the Fragile X Syndrome. Fragile X syndrome is associated with the expansion of the CGG trinucleotide reiterate affecting the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome, resulting in a failure to express the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which is required for mundane neural development. Absence of FMRP in turn leads to abnormalities in brain development and function. Works Cited autismspeaks.com

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Analysis of Jean Kilbourne’s Speech on Alcohol Essay

Content: Jean Kilbourne’s content use was very imagery based which is a very effective technique in persuasive speech. It is very apparent in her video that she does an extensive amount of research, and that she is extremely passionate about the content that goes into her videos. Kilbourne is a master when it comes to displaying images and information in a certain light to support her theories. Her entire thesis is based on a very feministic stand point and whether or not you necessarily agree with what she is saying it is hard to argue her point because she presents her points and ideas so well. The speech and direction used in her video is easy for all types of people to understand. Whether female or male she gets her point across and explains her ideas with solid proof. Kilbourne’s information and ideas are not the most original that I have ever seen but they are very unique in the sense that she appeals to every sex, race, and religion. Kilbourne is very well spoken and articulate and this helps her case as it only shows women in a very professional and educated light. She overwhelms her audience with an abundance of evidence and examples that are shown in the exact light that she needs for them for completely back her opinions and points of interest. Kilbourne’s supporting materials are in all of the content that she presents. She gives specific examples of every point that she makes with imagery, statistic and quotes from legitimate sources. Thoroughness is one of her strong points as well. Her examples are not only supportive or her ideas but, they directly relate to how she almost manipulates the viewer by showing us why she is right and how this is affecting women on a regular basis. Organization: Killing Us Softly was one of the most organized persuasive videos that I have ever seen. Although I did not fully agree with a lot of what her video was about I had to respect it because of just how well it was presented. During the introduction she gave her audience a very clear and thorough interpretation of what we were about to watch, and what her main concept and ideas that she was trying to get across were. She wastes very little time jumping right into examples of the message she is trying to get across. Kilbourne shows the audience countless examples over and over in an order hat may seem random to some but actually is very organized. She starts off with a strong example to set the tone and then gradually moves onto less extreme examples to show the varying levels of negative light being shown on women in advertising. Kilbourne’s main points are also very organized and clear. Almost like a check list as she went along showing the many different types of n egativity towards women in not only certain types of advertising but of all types across the board. Kilbourne shows just how enormous the advertising world is. It is a multimillion dollar industry that preys on intimidation and manipulation of women and their role in society. She exploits the very abundant and differing levels of exploitation of women in ads ranging from magazines, television, radio, billboards, and etcetera. Kilbourne’s conclusion was very strong and to the point. She showed a very funny but accurate commercial that shows men â€Å"acting† like women asking â€Å"Do I look fat in this? † or saying their hips are too big, that they have their mothers fat legs, â€Å"I will not let my dress size determine my self worth†; it ends saying â€Å"Men don’t obsess about these things, why do we? This is a very strong point to her conclusion because it shows how strong of an influence the media has on women and society as a whole. Delivery: Kilbourne’s entire speech comes across very confident and delivers her speech with conviction and authority. She is very passionate about her work and i deas and it seeps through in her video. Along with her numerous examples her very educated and clearly researched ideas are very evident during her speech. Kilbourne comes across extremely enthusiastic and energetic. Just by watching the way she performs her speech you know that she is very emotionally invested in her work and ideas. It rubs off on her audience because instead of just being perceived as â€Å"bitching† or â€Å"moaning† she is very thorough and accurate with her information. Even though a lot of it may be perceived my opinion by most she is so enthusiastic you can’t help but to really take a deep look and thought into what she is arguing. It is hard to judge Kilbourne’s eye contact and voice because we did not see her speech live, but from how she viewed the camera and the way that she presented herself it leads you to believe that she would be the same if not better in person. Like I stated before she comes across well educated and she is very articulate which compliments her arguments because she is a good poster-woman for all women. Kilbourne showed an abundant amount of visual aids and examples which in my opinion is what really made her speech. And as I stated before I don’t necessarily agree with everything she presented it is hard not to be moved by her speech because of how influential and well done it was.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Dignity Of Difference

Globalization has been described as the interconnectedness of the world through new systems of communication (Sacks, 27). Thus it’s simply the increased interaction of the world through trade, communication, education, which is brought about by limited restrictions. In the book â€Å"The Dignity of difference† Sacks portrays the world as a global entity by ascertaining that the issue of globalization be it economical, political or cultural has it advantages as well as shortcomings .â€Å"In globalization its benefits are not spread evenly, there are winners and losers† (Sacks 2002, 27). . The economic aspect of globalization according to sacks is old enough in that â€Å"integration of distant regions into a single international economy has been a continuous process extending back for many centuries† (27) Economic globalization The phenomenon of globalization has greatly impacted today’s society in a tremendous way.According to Sacks Economic global ization has been achieved through a number of factors that have led to increased interconnectedness of different parts of the world. Such factors include the presence of free market, which is characterized by increased movement of goods and services across the countries, through use of common currency, through international banking institutions such as the international monetary funds, the World Bank and common trade organisations such as the world trade organization.In the book Sacks cites that economic globalization has led to increased movement of goods which has led to increased availability of variety of goods which leave the consumer with freedom of choice, further it has led to increased job opportunities â€Å"Free market is the best means we have yet discovered for alleviating poverty and creating a human environment of independence, dignity and creativity†(Sacks,2002,16). Increased trade and employment opportunities, further lead to improved living standards.However despite the said advantages, the benefits don’t reflect evenly all over the world especially due to capitalism which emphasizes on wealth creation, favoring the rich but imposing a heavy burden on the poor. Sacks, cogently explain that the issue of globalization which has led to capitalism, it’s difficult to comprehend in that it has it has its disadvantages. For instance it has led to increased inequality.Due to this phenomenon the gap between the poor and rich has increased tremendously leading to increased poverty level. According to Sacks as a result of increased shift of production employment rates decline leading to unemployment especially in poor countries. Due to globalization ,the rich countries restrict trade in that they impose tariffs and subsidies on goods, which are imported from developing countries this affects the, poor countries GDP often leading to increased suffering of citizensAnother negative effect of globalization according to Sacks is the prob lem of debt created by international financial institution who often led money to poor and developing countries. This debts are mostly accompanied by heavy disciplinary which according to Sacks, hurt the countries infrastructure and growth. In essence sacks quips that due to globalizations the moral consciousness brought about by the emerging inequalities is completely destroyed leading to a shift in people behavior as individuals move their attention from family members to the neighbors and the outside society.Also economic globalization has been viewed as to undermine the peoples sense of moral responsibility, in that due to global market ,individuals and countries find it hard to understand their responsibilities, for instance Sacks explains situation where due to increased transactions caused by global market an individuals responsibility is rendered irrelevant. Sacks, also blame the September 11 attack on globalization in that the attacks were planned through internet and as a result of capitalism.He states that, the very elements of capitalism made it possible for such attacks on innocent civilians to take place. Alternatives to conflicts For ages conflicts have continued to exist in the world often leading to tremendous and disastrous repercussions on mankind. These conflicts such as terrorism and poverty according to sacks have resulted despite increased globalization.In his book the Dignity of difference, Sacks tries to emphasize on the importance of virtues such as humility, restraint reverence, and ability to listen in trying to confront human problems, especially those associated to religious ideologies. In the book also Sacks quips that for the world civilization to completely destroy the evil associated with globalization especially the increased acts of organized crime, its important to incorporate in the society the ideals of religious traditions and wisdom.In that such attributes are the â€Å"sustained reflections of humanity’s place in nature and what constitutes the proper goals of society† (Sacks 2002, 12). in essence Sacks stresses the utmost importance of respecting the differences of others which should be celebrated in a way that promotes dignity. The book the Dignity of difference by Sacks highlights on importance of the world civilization to embrace tolerance and respect while dealing with those who are unique and different from us. In that it’s important to recognize the uniqueness of every individual and society.He quips that what happened in New York was as a result of crashing of civilization and could have been avoided if every religion had respected and acknowledged its differences while maintaining dignity. Thus for us to solve modern conflicts and problems we should embrace religion and respect each others differences. Conclusion It’s wise to conclude that though globalization is a blessing it has led to increased conflicts and suffering. And as such if humanity is to survive the onslaught of the dangers posed by globalization religion is paramount, whether Christianity, Islam or Judaism.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

buy custom The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn essay

buy custom The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn essay The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a novel that was written by Mark Twain and published in 2005. It reveals the life story of a boy, Huckleberry, and his life experience. This helped him to learn significant values as well as lessons about life that enabled him to grow up and face challenges in life. Huckleberry traveled from one place to another and in the process he met different characters. From this adventure, Huckleberry learns many things about life. Huckleberry grows in a free world where he does what he wants. But his actions led to consequences. The setting of the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn helps him to grow up in a way that shapes his future. The consequences taught him things he needed to know, and ultimately shaped his future decisions, which is definitely what growing up means. Huckleberry Finn grows as a person who tries to civilize himself. He runs away from his drunkard father to a nearby island with his friend Jim. They discovered a push where they made their own home and planned to sail the Mississippi river whereby they both would become free. They traveled at night and slept inside the woods during daytime to avoid being caught. Huckleberry and Jim became good friends just like a family. However, they eventually became separated when the steamboat hit their push where they were staying. Huckleberry moved to a shore and stayed with Grangerfords family. He was later involved in the warfare, but he left where he was staying afte many families were killed. However, Huckleberry was later joined by Jim and two other friends. The four of them started swindling money from various cities through performing plays and shows. In addition, they got involved in a robbery and started stealing money from people within the city. From Huckleberrys encounters on the Mississippi river, he learnt many lessons about life. First, Huckleberry learnt that life is full of misfortunes and one has to endure problems in life, but he is forced to blame life for his own actions. He is forced to look after himself after he ran away from his drunkard father. Being a young boy, he undergoes several problems faced by adults, but he was forced to deal with them like a mature person. He blames himself for his own actions. Thus, he learnt how to apologize. For instance, Huck says but I done it (Twain 42) when he trickled Jim about the snake on the bed. In his statement I mean no more tricks, I wouldnt have done (Twain 47), is something that reveals that he is maturing. Huckleberry learnt that maturity is a process that one has to go through. From his encounters along the river, he learnt that one has to go through life experiences through trial and error. After Huckleberry ran away from his drunkard father and settled nearby the Mississippi river, he discovered more about life. Moreover, Huck learnt that it is significant to keep ones word in life. For instance, wheen Huck discovered that Jim was hiding in the island where he was staying, he asked Jim how he had got there. Jim narrated him a bit of information that was surprising to him. However, Jim warned him not to tell anybody, but rather keep the secret. Therefore, Huck responded by uttering that I would not, and I will stick to it (Twain 49). Huck began to realize the importance of keeping secrets because he understood that secrets revealed out may affect others. Thus, he says I aint a going to tell (Twain 51). Lastly, like the river, the plot flows around twists, through darkness and to the bright light.However, Huck learnt the differences between the right and wrong from his life experiences. Huckleberrys life story is full of shock found within the various episodes of narrations in the novel. This is because Huckleberry had to struggle in order to earn a living; a process through which he started to develop a mature life outlook. However, he eventually learnt that humane treatment, as well as respect, is what everyone expected. He demonstrated a caring concern of people after he learned that life has challenges. He says I couldnt ever feel any hardness (Twain 57). Additionally, he learns how humiliating another person is wrong. Thus, he says to Jim I aint do it again (Twain 59). This is after he discovered that he had humiliated Jim after he tricked him about the snake. This shows that Huck was maturing. Buy custom "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" essay

Monday, October 21, 2019

Goodfellas essays

Goodfella's essays What aspects of mise en scene, sound, editing and cinematography has Scorsese used to develop our understanding of character in the sequence from Goodfellas. (Scorsese 1990). What do they communicate to you? This scene which I have examined portrays the gangster Henry Hill, played by Ray Liotta in the film Goodfellas, directed by Martin Scorsese in 1990. The film follows the life of a group of gangsters from Brooklyn, New York. It was based on a true story. In the sequence it shows the character of Henry Hill in part of one day of his life. He wakes up at 6:55 am and snorts some cocaine, I think he is doing this to wake himself up for the busy day because he relies on the drugs that much. He then stashes some guns in his car that he has bought to match some silencers for the same guns that Jimmy had bought. Whilst doing this he notices a police helicopter above him. Scorsese has used a point-of-view shot to make it appear as if the spectator is looking through the characters eyes and he also uses a high angle shot looking down on Henry to show he is intimidated by the appearance of this helicopter. Also zooming in and out on the helicopter seems to construct he relationship between Henry's activities and the law. This introduction to the scene shows that the addiction to drugs are taking over Henrys lifestyle and the way he acts, he doesnt behave this way in any other part of the film until he becomes hooked on drugs and other illegal acts. He is obviously paranoid about the helicopter because he constantly stares out of the window of his car to see if its still there. He takes the guns to Jimmys house but unfortunately the silencers do not fit the guns, this angers Jimmy who then tells Henry to keep away from the drugs. What Henry is wearing is n instant indicator of the way he currently lives his lifestyle. You can tell that the cocaine has affected Henrys appearance...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

When Should I Ask for a College Recommendation Letter

When Should I Ask for a College Recommendation Letter SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips I remember worrying about the perfect time to ask for recommendation letters. Too early, I thought, could seem like over-planning; maybe my teachers would even forget by the time deadlines rolled around! Too late, though, would suggest a lack of preparation or could even offend my recommenders. It seemed like the stars had to align just right. If you’ve had any of these same concerns, you don’t have to wonder anymore. This guide will discuss the best times to ask for recommendations, plus why it’s important to have good timing in the first place. To start, what should you consider as you figure out when to ask? What Matters As You Decide When to Ask? There are a few main factors that influence when you should ask for recommendation letters, each of which I’ll talk about in more detail below. In a nutshell, these factors include the following: your college deadlines your teachers’ preferences your school's policy the year in which you had your teachers Some of these factors are easy to define - like your college deadlines - while others may offer a little more flexibility. Read on to figure out which ofthese scenarios applies to you, as well as what it means for your rec letter request schedule. Let’s begin with the general (though not necessarily definitive) golden rule: Ask At Least a Month Before Your College Deadlines Unless your school or teachers set other policies, you should ask for recommendation letters about four weeks before your college deadlines. If your deadlines vary, then ask four weeks before your earliest one. What exactly does this look like? If you’re applying to meet a November 1st early action or early decision deadline, then you should ask your teachers by October 1st. If your deadline’s November 15, then ask by October 15th. You get the idea. If your deadlines are regular decision, then they might be around January 1st or January 15th. In this situation, you could ask by the time December rolls around. However, consider everything that goes on in December. December is full of midterms, which means lots of grading for teachers, plus manydays off from school. You can also assume that most students have made their rec letter requests earlier in the semester. For regular decision deadlines, I would suggest asking by mid-November at the latest, to take into account the busy scheduleandvacation daysin the winter months. You may be wondering why teachers need a month to write a letter. For one thing, they’re not just writing you a letter - some teachers have dozens of letters to write, and most counselors have hundreds! Besides that, rec letters take time and thought to do well. You don’t want a rushed, subpar letter because you waited too long to ask for it. While giving your teachers about a month before your deadlines is generally a safe rule, it’s not the end-all, be-all answer. Your teachers and school might tell you to ask even earlier. Let’s consider what policies teachers set, followed by what your school guidance department might tell you to do. Everyteacher might have their ownpersonal preference. Ask According to Your Recommenders’ Preferences Teachers are busy. They have to teach several classes a day for hundreds of students, not to mention all the planning and grading that goes on behind the scenes. Plus, despite what we may have believed in elementary school, they don’t live at the school. They have lots going on in their personal lives, too. My point is that recommendation letters are another task on top of an already packed schedule. Just as you should give your teacher plenty of time to write your letter, your teacher might set certain policies to make the workload more manageable. She might set a rec letter request due date, or set a cap on how many letters she’ll write. It’s your job to find out what your teachers’ policies are. If you can’t find out from older students or through word of mouth, then you should ask your teacher when she prefers to get requests. Find out if she sets a deadline or limit. If she sets a cap, try to get a sense of how popular a recommender she is. If you know your English teacher, for instance, gets inundated with requests, get yours in early. Ask her in September or, better yet, in the spring of junior year. You don’t want to ask a month before your deadlines only to find that your teacher’s too busy or has stopped accepting requests. Generally speaking, your teacher will appreciate that you’re being thoughtful, proactive, and giving her plenty of time. Along similar lines, your guidance department may give you instructions about when to ask. Ask According to Your Guidance Department’s Instructions While individual teachers may set their own policies, your guidance department may also have a blanket rule for all college-boundstudents. Some schools, for instance, have students ask in the spring of junior year. Others tell students to submit three teacher preferences to their college counselors, who will then assign everyone two (and thereby balancethe numbers more evenly). Other high schools tell students to ask in the fall of senior year, and still others have no particular guidance - they leave it up to each student to figure it out. If you haven’t received directions, visit your school counselor and ask her about the general expectations. They may determine whether you ask in Aprilof 11th grade or September of 12th. Finally, there’s one more consideration that may alter your request timeline: the grade in which you had your recommenders as teachers. Don't wait so long that your teacher forgets who you are! Also, just keep swimming. Ask Your Teachers At the End of their Class or School Year Remember that classic first day of school assignment,"Write about what you did over the summer"? Well, what if your teacher asked you to write in vivid detail about what you did three summers ago? Just as you might have trouble remembering the specifics, your recommenders mightnot be able to produce the clearest memories if they had you in class years before you make your request. While it’s advisable to ask your junior year teachers, some students reach back further and have their freshman or sophomore year teachers recommend them. If you had a great connection with a 9th or 10th grade teacher and feel they might make a strong recommender, then you should ask them sooner rather than later. Instead of waiting until senior year, you should ask them at the end of the year you had them, ie, at the end of 9th or 10th grade. Similarly, you could ask your junior year teachers at the end of 11th grade, rather than waiting until after summer break. Even if you don’t ultimately use the letter, you can have it on file just in case. Plus, asking early helps in any of the other scenarios mentioned above: you give your recommenders (more than) a month before your deadlines, you beat the rush of requests, and you get your request in before any ofyour teachers’ or guidance department’s deadlines. Win-win-win. If you’ve learned about the rec letter process, then you know more goes into it than simply asking your teacher to write you one. You additionally want to provide a resume and a thoughtful brag sheet. If you’re asking especially early, then you could make the request and follow up later with all this info. You’ll show your recommenders that you’re proactive and goal-oriented; then you can send along your recommendation packet once you’ve prepared it. Now that you have a sense of when students typically ask for recommendations and why, how can you figure out when exactly YOU should ask? So When Should You Ask for Your Recommendations? To determine when you should ask your recommenders for a letter, you need to do your research. Make sure you know all your college deadlines, for starters. Then figure out whether your school has any guidance about when to ask, like in April of 11th grade or September of 12th grade. Figure out who you're going to ask in junior year, so you can find out if your teachers set any deadlines for or caps on requests. If you're a younger student, you should think about whether any of your teachers would make for strong recommenders. If so, then consider asking them at the end of the school year. The latest that you should ask for recommendations is October of senior year for early deadlines and November to December of senior year for regular deadlines. To be safe and proactive though, as well as to keep yourself fresh in your teachers' memories, you'd do well to ask in March, April, or May of junior year. Asking early will not only give your teachers the time they need to write a well-crafted letter, but it will also give you peace of mind. Apart from following up with a reminder and thank you note, your work on recommendation letters will be done! Then it will be up to your recommenders to upload their letters, and you can focus on finishing up the rest of your college application. What's Next? As you can tell, a lot of planning and strategy goes into your recommendation letters. Why are rec letters important in your application? Whatdo admissions officers look for when they read them?Find out more about the role of rec letters in admissions decisions in these guides. There are lots of other steps that go into applying for college, like scheduling your SAT/ACT and writing your personal essay. Check outour complete guideto applying to college, from 9th grade up until senior year. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Saturday, October 19, 2019

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING - Coursework Example rkers and in the employment of workers safeguarded by the union, it is therefore important to know the statutes that need to be considered to ensure a smooth running on either sides. The Public Law Act passed by the congress in 1964 is categorical in defining the way a worker should be handled and the procedure that need to be followed in cases of firing. It discourages discrimination on any basis that include race and sex. The Equal Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was created to ensure that the legislations created in regard to the same are adhered to and the law is being enforced effectively without favor or fear. Knowing the statutes and the acts that describe the employer-employee relations is important and so I would advise the management to be cognizant with them before the agreement is done. This will be critical in avoiding tussles when any of the parties breaches the contract and the other seeks the intervention of the

Destiny After Brokenness Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Destiny After Brokenness - Term Paper Example   This may lead him to â€Å"break away† from his own reality; hence, his brokenness. It is hoped that whatever conclusions that may be made by the writer at the end may contribute to the enrichment of the body of knowledge currently proliferating on the subject. It would be useful for easy understanding to check out what could be the different connotations that have been attached to the word â€Å"destiny.† Indeed, there are many, given the depths that this word has assumed. Simmons (1) defines destiny as â€Å"that place to which a person is meant to be.† The American Heritage Dictionary is more explicit: â€Å"a predetermined course of events considered as something beyond human power and control.† In this sense, it gives an understanding of destiny as something that pertains to an ending that has been present from the beginning and which cannot be changed by any means. This belief is maintained by the scientific advocates of evolution or even the atheists who do not believe in a Supreme Being and who support the thesis that everything evolves. Although science has not proven the evolution of man and continues to figure out how the planetary system is kept in suspension, many still doubt the existence of a God (Lasiter). But any discussion of destiny can only be understood in a wider perspective when seen from the point of view of evolution or the origin of things, as aptly put by Lasiter in his online programming discourse on Man’s Ultimate Destiny. Lasiter looks at evolution as the determinant of the end-point of things, which idea presupposes that matter with no ability to make choices would follow the line that destiny is that which has been present from the beginning, whatever it is.   This thinking, however, takes a wider deviation when destiny is analyzed in relation to human beings who have the ability to make choices because of their free will.  

Destiny After Brokenness Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Destiny After Brokenness - Term Paper Example   This may lead him to â€Å"break away† from his own reality; hence, his brokenness. It is hoped that whatever conclusions that may be made by the writer at the end may contribute to the enrichment of the body of knowledge currently proliferating on the subject. It would be useful for easy understanding to check out what could be the different connotations that have been attached to the word â€Å"destiny.† Indeed, there are many, given the depths that this word has assumed. Simmons (1) defines destiny as â€Å"that place to which a person is meant to be.† The American Heritage Dictionary is more explicit: â€Å"a predetermined course of events considered as something beyond human power and control.† In this sense, it gives an understanding of destiny as something that pertains to an ending that has been present from the beginning and which cannot be changed by any means. This belief is maintained by the scientific advocates of evolution or even the atheists who do not believe in a Supreme Being and who support the thesis that everything evolves. Although science has not proven the evolution of man and continues to figure out how the planetary system is kept in suspension, many still doubt the existence of a God (Lasiter). But any discussion of destiny can only be understood in a wider perspective when seen from the point of view of evolution or the origin of things, as aptly put by Lasiter in his online programming discourse on Man’s Ultimate Destiny. Lasiter looks at evolution as the determinant of the end-point of things, which idea presupposes that matter with no ability to make choices would follow the line that destiny is that which has been present from the beginning, whatever it is.   This thinking, however, takes a wider deviation when destiny is analyzed in relation to human beings who have the ability to make choices because of their free will.  

Friday, October 18, 2019

Discuss, using examples, how the Internet may change Michael Porter's Essay

Discuss, using examples, how the Internet may change Michael Porter's five competitive forces - Essay Example The introduction of computers and internet has significant effects on Porter’s five forces model. According to Poon (1997), global computer network has far-reaching abilities and is capable of reducing the normal business expenditure. This paper analyses how Internet may change Michael Porter’s five competitive forces. How the Internet may change Michael Porter’s five competitive forces? Internet and Threat of substitute products Threat of substitute products is increasing day by day in global market after the arrival of internet and the subsequent development of ecommerce. As per the statistics released by US Department of Commerce in May 2005, e-commerce sales in the first quarter of the year had been $19.8 billion (Eschen, 2005). In other words, business in the virtual world is increasing rapidly at present because of the arrival of internet. It should be noted that Chinese companies are manufacturing plenty of duplicate products in their country. It is easy f or them to make a duplicate for iPhone 5 or Galaxy S4 and sell it at a cheaper rate. People in America or Europe can easily purchase these duplicate products with the help of internet. In short, threat of substitute products is increasing day by day because of the arrival of internet and subsequent development of ecommerce. ... As a result of that retailers forced to start business in the virtual world also. Wal-Mart and Tesco like prominent retailers have already started ecommerce because of the challenges facing by them from new entrants in the virtual world. Vitez (2013) pointed out that companies should implement current technologies in business. Otherwise competitors may use new Internet-based technology for creating a competitive advantage in the economic marketplace. For example, outsourcing is one of the latest business concepts developed in the corporate world with the arrival of internet. According to Thompson (2009), outsourcing is a business process in which a company contracts with another company to provide services that might normally performed by in-house employees. Because of manpower shortage, labor costs in America and Europe are extremely higher than that in Asian countries. Therefore, goods and services produced in these countries may struggle to compete effectively with Indian or Chine se products and services in the market. In order to avoid this problem, American and European companies are outsourcing their business to cheap labor oriented countries to compete effectively in the market. It should be noted that Indian or Chinese companies can sell cheaper products in American or European market through internet. As a result of that, American and European companies may struggle to sell their products even in the local market. â€Å"For existing businesses, these new online sellers represent a challenge to retain customers† (Hartman, 2013). To avoid this problem from new entrants, these companies are currently outsourcing and offshoring their business activities to cheap labor oriented overseas

International Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 5

International Business - Essay Example People from one region within a country used to go to other regions to exchange goods. Different communities realized that there were other goods that they did not know and were available in long distances. This was realized when people from different regions travelled long distances in search for more resources. Word soon spread across the world and communities from different parts of the globe started to look for the different goods. There were goods that were more precious. Merchants went across the world just to get those goods. Such countries included China, India, America and Europe. International business started to blossom at that time leading to a number of civilizations. Domestic business or trade is a form of business, which is confined to the borders of a country. People within that country or territory buy goods and services within their borders. Domestic trade is usually good as it develops local infrastructure and also plays a role in enriching its own. This form of tr ade is probably the oldest form of trade. It was the main type of business in many parts of the world long before, merchants started to go to far lands. On the other hand, international business is business between countries. In this case, merchants from different countries exchange goods for money. Different countries are endowed differently. There are some that are good in industries while others have resources that can be used as raw materials for their industries. The country with industries, for example, would buy raw materials from the country with those resources. Money paid to the country with the resources would be used to buy industrial goods from the industrialized country. Ideally,what is sold to another country is export and what is received from another country is imports. The two countries benefit by getting what they did not have and foreign exchange (Curtin, 2002). One country can trade with many countries depending on its needs. Some countries have been found to im port much more than they import while others export much more than they import. Countries importing more are known as net importer countries, for example, the United States while countries that export more are known as net exporter countries, for example, Japan. International business has assisted many countries to develop and share with others. The unique characteristic of international business is that it also boosts domestic business in some way. Use of the terms domestic business and international business has been very confusing to some people in some scenarios. For example, there are some people who may argue, since domestic business is in certain territories or countries, then in countries with state government systems, the individual states experience both domestic and international trade in some way. Such people will argue that a State like California and Texas trading is international business. Nevertheless, different counties within California do domestic trading. Accordi ng to such people, interstate trade is the same as Britain and France trading (Curtin, 2002). This theory is true, to some extent, and wrong in another way. The different states in the United States represent some form of territorial jurisdiction. In fact, some states operate very differently from others. They have their own regulations for different things and differ from others. Each state has its own governing body that is responsible for drafting and passing policies. As such, the different countries of diverse

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Society - Essay Example As a result of exceptional scientific innovations, it can also be asked that whether the human beings will be able to maintain a balance between the two. It can be said that the ever gaining pace of scientific research and technological production is the main root of moral dilemmas prevalent in our society today. Looking at the condition of our society, it is essential to discuss the ethical situation as compared to the speedy progress in the field of technology. Humans have always been highly acute when it comes to methodizing themselves  into a social system and in this way human race has always strived to achieve the best of a governing authority. In an ideal society, ruling class should have the highest interest in the population it governs and people’s interest ranges from smallest needs such as food, protection and clothing to higher elaborated needs as power and wealth. Now, if it is closely observed, all the concerns in people’s heart are ignited by a common motivation; a motivation to achieve happiness and peace of mind. Therefore it can be said that in an ideal society, people should be given the right to acquire the happiness and mental satisfaction that they desire. However, it has been evaluated that an unrestricted reproduction rate of any civilization or society will be a hindrance in the path of an ideal society. Therefore, in my opinion, any society that is over populated cannot be rated as an idealized society; thus a controlled ratio of citizens that is necessary for the society to be self-sustaining is a must. In a balanced society, equilibrium should be maintained where every citizen contributes equally as a vital source. In this way, a true sense of unity and belongingness will prevail within the society and its members. Such a society can prove to be an ideal base for a stronger society where better moral, ethical and social conditions exist. However, due to the fast paced

Increasing Literacy and Reading Competency of a Four-Year Old Learner Assignment

Increasing Literacy and Reading Competency of a Four-Year Old Learner - Assignment Example appraisement, educational adjustment profile (EAP), specialist report, assessment - minimum 3 types, research literature - minimum 4). 2. Use positive language to highlight what the student can currently achieve. Do not use a deficit approach. Avoid comparisons with the norm. I am particularly interested in finding out about the student's interests, likes and dislikes and learning characteristics. What do you already know about what works for this student Melanie (pseudonym name) is a healthy four year-old girl, currently attending K1 in Modern Montessori International Group (MMI). Through the use of appraisement observation (Wood, 1992), it has been noted that when she is asked to read a selection and later on asked of what she has understood about it, she loses track of the entire reading subjecting her to forgetting even the simple words that she has already come across within the reading. Besides that, it could be noted too that even though she is asked with regards the meaning of the words that she was already given familiarity to while reading the material given to her, she has the hardest time remembering them during the first time of questioning. If closer observance is paid to the reading process of Melanie at home, it would likely lead to different end results, as per suggested by the Educational Adjustment Profile (Balasundarm, 1998). If one lets her read a line that includes very simple words that she already knows or has come across earlier, there is no reason why she could not finish the task. As for a fact, she will readily do the reading from the beginning of the text as required continuously up until the end of the reading piece. However relating the different meaning of the words in the reading becomes a hard matter for her to complete. Through the use of one-to-one assessment method (Steven, 2008), I, as the teacher of Melanie, was able to observe her different developments based from the number of practices and trainings that she has undergone such as phonics, reading comprehension and other word based programmes that are all aimed to help an individual verbally comprehend with written pieces of reading. Through a systematic process of gathering the data I was able to keep a record on how well my niece is making improvement based from the daily activities that I handle with her in a regular basis. I used both formal and informal assessments to ensure that the Melanie is making progress. This means that the assessment could happen during or even after classes (ASHA, 2009). Through this mandated procedure, I am sure to be able to help Melanie enhance her skills on understanding words and their context even after class allowing her to see things in a practical manner. As noted through the said observation I learned h ow my niece has become much patient and perseverant in accepting the lessons I present to her making her better acquainted with the lesson thus pushing her to develop further in her learning. Planning (350 words) 1. From what you know about the student, prepare an individualised education plan (IEP) for

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Society - Essay Example As a result of exceptional scientific innovations, it can also be asked that whether the human beings will be able to maintain a balance between the two. It can be said that the ever gaining pace of scientific research and technological production is the main root of moral dilemmas prevalent in our society today. Looking at the condition of our society, it is essential to discuss the ethical situation as compared to the speedy progress in the field of technology. Humans have always been highly acute when it comes to methodizing themselves  into a social system and in this way human race has always strived to achieve the best of a governing authority. In an ideal society, ruling class should have the highest interest in the population it governs and people’s interest ranges from smallest needs such as food, protection and clothing to higher elaborated needs as power and wealth. Now, if it is closely observed, all the concerns in people’s heart are ignited by a common motivation; a motivation to achieve happiness and peace of mind. Therefore it can be said that in an ideal society, people should be given the right to acquire the happiness and mental satisfaction that they desire. However, it has been evaluated that an unrestricted reproduction rate of any civilization or society will be a hindrance in the path of an ideal society. Therefore, in my opinion, any society that is over populated cannot be rated as an idealized society; thus a controlled ratio of citizens that is necessary for the society to be self-sustaining is a must. In a balanced society, equilibrium should be maintained where every citizen contributes equally as a vital source. In this way, a true sense of unity and belongingness will prevail within the society and its members. Such a society can prove to be an ideal base for a stronger society where better moral, ethical and social conditions exist. However, due to the fast paced

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Challenges in Auditing Literature review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Challenges in Auditing - Literature review Example According to Power (1997, cited in Free, Salterio and Shearer, 2009) auditing can be described as both operational and programmatic elements. The programmatic elements relate to the concepts and ideas that make practice and policy objectives that are existent in the political arena. Goals are formulated with the practices for the levels of programs. These levels are defined when audits are required by the regulatory agencies. The operational elements refer to the concrete routines and tasks that are practiced by the practitioners worldwide. Review The global audit regulatory system is dynamic that includes a number of organizations, which compete among them. Such competition is reflected in the range of actions from political lobbying process to policy publication papers and submission of those papers to the committees. During the period of financial crisis, it is hard to find papers that are audited by the large firms, national audit boards and the professional bodies. Another probl em related to the financial crisis is that, the process in which the assurance operation is carried out and enacted (Kornberger, Justesen and Mouritsen, 2011). Audits aims at drawing general conclusion from the studies that are made regarding a topic. Thus, there is lack of potential use of the statistical foundations like sampling, which often gave limited information and provided with incorrect results. The qualitative studies carried out by Humphrey and Moizer (1990, cited in Kornberger, Justesen and Mouritsen, 2011) and Fischer (1996, cited in Kornberger, Justesen and Mouritsen, 2011) has suggested that the practice of the financial audit work is socially constructed. Curtis and Turley (2007, cited in Kornberger, Justesen and Mouritsen, 2011) has argued that there are huge business risk in the audit works. They have documented the problems that are related to the translation of new concepts that are developed by the officers at administrative levels, into the real audit techniqu es at the general practitioner level. The auditing profession is related to good consequences as well as bad crisis. But the auditing profession has responded boldly to the financial crisis by implementing a number of communication modes and interacting with the governmental and regulatory bodies. The clarification is needed for specifying the exact role and the obligations of the auditors. According to Woods (2009, cited in Kornberger, Justesen and Mouritsen, 2011) the companies often face downturn, when their financial statements are not audited properly and thus it threats the future developments of the company. According to Cherry, Johnson and Veron (2008, cited in Humphrey, Loft and Woods, 2009) suggested that auditing practices can overshadow the standard of financial reporting. Thus, greater focus is to be provided to the volatility of the accounting numbers than to audibility of the traditional financial statements. The imbalance between the two is noticed during the fair va lue debate. It has been suggested by Ryan (2008, cited in Humphrey, Loft and Woods, 2009) that the duration of the crisis can be reduced, if the practitioner of the auditing functions are exercising the Financial accounting System appropriately. The auditors seek to develop a firm ability to make a judgment related to the reporting of the fair values. Ryan (2008, cited

Monday, October 14, 2019

Matricaria Chamomilla (Chamomile): A Pharmacognosy Review

Matricaria Chamomilla (Chamomile): A Pharmacognosy Review Abstract Matricaria chamomilla is one of the most ancient and renowned medicinal plant from Asteraceae family. Chamomile is a well-heeled plant of natural stuff having pharmacognostic properties. This plant is natural source of blue oil, prepared by various methods such as hydro-distillation, chromatography techniques, etc. Earlier studies on plant compounds classified have nutritional values and more than one biological activity. Chamomile is thus used in cosmetics, perfumery, in food industry and aromatherapy since thousands of years. It has been suggested as alleviate for numerous diseases. This article briefly reviews the details on chemical constituents of essential oil and plant parts as well as their pharmacological properties, accomplished by QSAR and pharmacophore studies which is an in silico approach that increases the activity of plant by modifying its functional groups. This is an attempt to compile and document information on various aspects of chamomile plant and emphasize its need for research and development. Keywords: Matricaria chamomilla, chemical constituents, pharmacognostic, QSAR Introduction The relationship of plant life and human well-being has been renowned for thousands of years.1,2 Herbs have been vital to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medication dated back to at least 5000 years.3-5The enduring popularity of herbal remedies may be enlightened by the propensity of herbs to graft gradually, typically with minimal toxic side effects. Plants are imperative sources of medication since time immemorial. Studies on natural-products are meant to establish therapeutic values of plants by exploration of existing precise scientific knowledge, conventional uses, and invention of potential chemotherapeutic agents.6 The history of herbal medicine is as old as human civilization. With the promising global concern in adopting and studying customary system of medicine and exploring their potential based on different Medicare systems, the estimation of rich heritage of medicinally active plants is primarily carried out on the basis of morphological, phytochemical, pha rmacological and different techniques such as chromatography, distillation, etc.7 One of the most common herbal plant used for curative purposes is chamomile whose homogeneous tea and herbal mines are primed from dried flowers ofMatricariaspecies.8 Taxonomical classification Kingdom: Plantae, Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plant), Class: Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledons), Family: Asteraceae, Genus: Matricaria L., Species: Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile).9 Morphology of plant Matricaria chamomilla commonly known as German chamomile is one of the most ancient annual herbaceous plant of composite family Asteraceae.10 This composite flower is largely favoured aromatic plant having multi-therapeutic values. Chamomile is highly imperative medicinal herb native to southern and eastern Europe. It is most ancient medicinal plant used in herbal remedies for thousands of years known to mankind. Matricaria Chamomilla is a natural resource of blue oil. Various sections of plant such as aerial parts, root and shoot system contains essential oil that has been recommended for variety of healing ailments and diseases.11 Chamomile is a rich source of natural products. There is an immense demand for chamomile plant world-wide because of its influential medicinal values and pharmacological properties. Chamomile plant has a sweet, verdant, and faintly fruity scent. Its florae are daisy-like flowers, with yellow cores and white petals.12 The color of the Blue oil is due to the terpenoid chamazulene, which has been reported for its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and antispasmodic properties.13 Chamazulene is biosynthesized from sesquiterpene Matricine, which is reported to have solid antioxidant activity and antimicrobial pharmacological actions.14,15 Ethnobotanical Profile Chamomile being a constituent of various traditional, unani, and homeopathic medicinal provisions, it has been used greatly in flatulence, colic, hysteria, and intermittent fever as a drug.16-18 Many scientists have quoted from writings of several doctors of ancient times that chamomile was also used in cardiac diseases and in functioning of liver.19-22 The diverse range of essential oil isolation techniques and analytical procedures have been smeared for studying the volatile components of chamomile by several groups.23 Numerous essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to ease anxiety, pressure, and depression. Standard anxiolytic oils include lavender oil, rose oil, orange oil, bergamot oil, lemon oil, sandalwood oil, rose-scented geranium oil and chamomile (German and Roman).24 This aromatherapy is the use of concentrated essential oils extracted from herbs, flowers, and other plant parts to heal several diseases. Aromatherapy is becoming increasingly more popula r; however there are only a few apparent indications for its use.25 Aromatherapy massage exerts optimistic effects on anxiety, self-esteem and also highly reduces stress and stress responses in adolescents by taking aroma treatments.26, 27 The international demand for chamomile oil has been steadily growing. Chamomile is internally used as tisane for stomach pain, slow digestion, diarrhoea and nausea; more rarely and very efficiently for inflammation of the urinary tract and for aching menstruation. Chamomile is used chiefly as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic, also as antispasmodic and mildly sudorific.28 The chamomile extracts was found to have the most effective anti-leishmanial activity.29 The other uses of Matricaria chamomilla are in cosmetics, perfumes, food additives, while the external use includes the powder form of drug that can be applied for healing, skin eruptions, and infections.10,30 A number of chemical constituents have been identified in chamomile as secondary metabolites, including terpenoids, flavonoids, phenyl propanoids and many other additional compounds with potential pharmacological action. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Compounds Plants engender primary and secondary metabolites which encompass a wide range of functions. Plants can produce many different types of secondary metabolites that comprise of compounds having multivariate function, exposed by humans for their beneficial role in a varied array of applications.31 Phytochemicals have been the single most fruitful source of leads for the expansion of new drug entities from the dawn of drug discovery. They cover up a wide array of therapeutic indications with a huge assortment of chemical structures.32 The Phytochemicals isolated from Matricaria chamomilla have been classified into different classes of compounds (see table no. 1). The detailed information for each class of compounds can be accessible from supplementary table no. S1-S10. Alkanes Alkanes are acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2 , and therefore comprises completely of hydrogen atoms and saturated carbon atoms.33 Drugs are increasingly being developed from natural products and several alkane compounds such as hexane have already been reported, offering a very promising approach to identify novel anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer agents.34 A considerable number of alkanes derived from chamomile have been identified mostly as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. A list of alkanes along with its structure and biological activity has been documented in a table (see supplementary table no. S1). Flavonoids Flavonoids are low molecular weight bioactive compounds of enormous biological importance. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites outlined by flavan nucleus and its carbon framework refers to C6-C8-C6.35 These compounds can be classified as polyphenols or phenolics. Flavonoids can be further grouped into subclasses such as flavones, flavonols, flavanones, chalcones, aurones, isoflavones, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins. Flavonoid displays several biological properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiobesity, cardio protective, and neuroprotective activities.36 A huge number of flavonoid compounds such as rutin, quercetin hesperidin and many others have been reported as drugs that tend to possess anticancer, antioxidant and even senescence effects.37,38 A list of flavonoids along with its structure and biological activity has been listed in a table (see supplementary table no. S2). Terpenoids Terpenoids, encompasses the most abundant and morphologically diverse group of plant secondary metabolites. Terpenoids are more frequently present in plants and around 23,000 compounds have been isolated in all. Terpenoids being a rich reservoir of candidate compounds have been characterized as monoterpenes, diterpenes, hemiterpenes and sesquiterpenes.39 Terpenoid production from plants has various defensive and protective functions that holds potential therapeutic properties such as anticancer (mostly leukemic), analgesic, antioxidant, antimicrobial and others. The terpenoid, eucalyptol which is a fragrant chemical has been propagated as nutraceutical having analgesic, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties.40,41 A list of terpenoids along with its structure and biological activity has been revealed in a table (see supplementary table no. S3). Coumarins Coumarin, which was isolated in 1820 for the first time is classified as an element of benzopyrone family of compounds.42 Coumarins are the well-known phytochemicals that are comprehensively used as a natural active compound. The synthesis of coumarins and their derivatives have noteworthy significance from organic and medicinal chemists for several years. They have been generally used in food, perfumes, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and as optical brighteners.43 Several coumarins and their derivatives have been reported for its antimicrobial and anticancer effects, some of which act as drugs. Dicumarol, cyclocoumarol, coumarin and its derivatives are used as an anticoagulants.44 A list of coumarins along with its structure and biological activity has been listed out in a table (see supplementary table no. S4). Phenyl propanoids Phenyl propanoids are the varied family of organic compounds synthesized from amino acid phenyl alanine.45 Phenyl propanoids are the plant polyketides that tend to possess multiple biological functions such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-depressant and anticancer.46 Phenyl alanine which is an essential amino acid is sold as nutritional supplement for its reputed analgesic and antidepressant effects.47,48 Phenyl alanine first gets converted to cinnamic acid by deamination which is than followed by hydroxylation and frequent methylation to produce coumaric acid and others with phenyl propane.49 A list of phenyl propanoids along with its structure and biological activity has been recorded in a table (see supplementary table no. S5). Spiroethers Spiroether isomers isolated from chamomile showed antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activities.50 A list of spiroethers along with its structure and biological activity has been mentioned in a table (see supplementary table no. S6). Fatty acids Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic hydrocarbon tail produced by hydrolysis of triglycerides. These are either saturated or unsaturated naturally occurring fatty acids. 51 More interestingly, isoamly acetate released from honey bee’s sting act as pheromone.52 Isoamyl acetate is also found to be isolated from wine.53 Fatty acids possesses anticancer, antioxidant and other pharmacological actions which has been depicted in a table (see supplementary table no. S7). Fatty acid esters Fatty acid esters can be obtained by esterification of fatty acids. They are the product of combination of fatty acid with an alcohol.54 Fatty acids acts against microbes, as an analgesic and also as melanogenesis inhibitor. A list of fatty acid esters along with its structure and above mentioned biological activity with its references has been reported in a table(see supplementary table no. S8). Pthalic acid Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid which is formed by catalytic oxidation of naphthalene directly to phthalic anhydride.55 The significant pharmacological properties of phthalic acid involves anti-androgenic, antimutagenic and anti-leukemic activity. Phthalic acid along with its structure and biological activity has been depicted in a table (see supplementary table no. S9). Fatty alcohol Fatty alcohols are the aliphatic alcohols which are naturally found as waxes produced by plants, bacteria and animals having various biological properties.56 The metabolism of fatty alcohol compounds in fibroblasts is impaired in several inherited humanperoxisomaldisorders, includingadrenoleukodystrophyandSjogren-Larsson syndrome.57 Fatty alcohol along with its structure and biological activity has been documented in a table (see supplementary table no. S10). Catalogue of Bioinformatics and Cheminformatics repositories The large amount of Chamomile phytochemical information is highly discrete and can be easily procurable by a number of web-accessible bioinformatics and cheminformatics databases like PubChem,58,59 Chemspider,60 Human Metabolome Database(HMDB),61 ChemBank,62 NAPRALERT,63 SuperNatural database,64 NPACT65 and many more. PubChem is an open repository for chemical structures and their biological activities, maintained by NCBI, a division of NLM under NIH. PubChem is becoming a valued reserve for drug development fascinating noteworthy interest from researchers in academe and diligence.66 PubChem includes substance information, compound structures, and BioActivity information from three principal databases, Pcsubstance, Pccompound, and PCBioAssay, respectively. Pcsubstance contains descriptions of small molecules, PcBioassay contains biological screening results of substances provided by depositors and Pccompound database contains the unique chemical structures. The aim of PubChem is to make this information easily available.67 Pcsubstance contains about 93 million records, Pccompound contains nearly 33 million unique structures and PCBioAssay contains more than 621,000 BioAssays.68 ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database providing rapid text search and structure search access to more than 28 million structures from hundreds of data sources.69 ChemSpider is a very valued web-based database that facilitates access to various chemical structures, nomenclature, chemical properties and other systematic information. ChemSpider is integrated with RSC (Royal Society of Chemistry).60 The Human Metabolome Database is an opulently annotated resource that is devoted to provide researchers with most recent and comprehensive coverage of human metabolome.70 The latest version of HMDB release is HMDB 3.0 that contains 40278 metabolite entries. The database is intended to contain three kinds of entries: chemical data, clinical data and molecular biology/biochemistry data.61 ChemBank is a public web-based database cheminformatics database established by Broad Institutes Chemical Biology Programand funded by National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Initiative for Chemical Genetics (ICG). ChemBank, a unique among small molecule database houses all the chemical molecular information such as names and identifier of the compounds, their calculated molecular descriptors as well as human curated biological information.62 NAPRALERT (NAtural PRoduct ALERT), an largest ethnobotanical database on pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology and phytochemistry of plants. NAPRALERT, a relational database was initiated in 1975 by Norman Fransworth and is housed within the Program for Collaborative Research at College of Pharmacy, UIC. It includes biochemical information of extracts of organism, in vivo, in situ, in vitro in humans and clinical studies.63 SuperNatural database is the first public database containing 3D structures, their conformers, derivatives and analogues. It consists of ~ 50,000 natural compounds from different sources. Natural products compounds are classified based on different classes of compounds.64 NPACT is Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database. It presently comprises of 1574 compound entries with detailed information on the structure, and activity of compound. This database gathers experimentally validated plant derived natural compounds exhibiting anti-cancerous property, both in vitro and in vivo. It also provides inhibitory values of compounds (IC50, ED50, EC50, GI50), their molecular targets and drug-likeliness.65 Conclusion Chamomile is extensively in use in world market because of its wide and varied appliance in medical science. Moreover, natural substances are preferred more, rather than synthesized one due to its minimal side effects and easy extraction of its compounds. Chamomile is a natural source for plenty of bioactive substances that cure numerous diseases. Cheminformatics, an in silico approach is a way out for ample of problems in field of medicinal chemistry. This avenue can be used in drug discovery processes. In silico has gained a considerable thrust over last few years. Due to increased availability of computational power, in silico simulations have reward over in vitro methods. In silico methods are time and cost effective, tumbling lots of biological confirmations and offers the possibility of replacing some animal tests with suitable insilicomodels. QSAR and Pharmacophore studies can be carried out at primary level to increase the activity of the compounds which further leads to drug discovery processes.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Nurses and Other Healthcare Professionals Ess

The role of ethics in organizational behavior is the underlying factor to the success and longevity of any organization. A set of rules and guidelines focusing on promoting safety, trust, and responsible practice within the workplace must be established internally. Organizations develop code of ethics that center upon the promotion of good. Ethics are vital in developing trusting relationships between employees and administration within. A code of ethics highlights the responsibility and accountability standards of each and every employee within the organization. These codes are also motivating factors that guide the employees’ behavior, set the standard regarding ethical conduct, and build an organizations trustworthiness within their surroundings. (McShane, Gilnow, 2012). The role of ethics in organizational behavior can negatively or positively impact an entire healthcare entity. If employees are educated on the importance of practicing ethically at all times, and the organization as a whole operates unethically displayed values of an organization are then in question. Before employees can begin to practice ethically the organizational foundation of standard must be rooted. Every individual regardless of position should be held accountable for their actions. Healthcare organizations are very influential and play an active role within the community. The decisions of a healthcare organization can easily sway the community’s perspective and damage developed relationships. The community is the heart of any healthcare organization. Consumers come from within the community, and if they seek elsewhere a healthcare organization can falter. Employees may feel better connected to an organization that values and appreciates their... ...are. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved November 14, 2013. Lin, M. Chuen-Teng, H. Hsien-Hsein, C. Ching-Huey, C. (2012). Exploring ethical aspects of elective surgery patients’decision-making experiences . Nursing Ethics. http://ehis.ebscohost.com.proxy024.nclive.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9be8d4ae-586e-4f0b-8ab4-bec5ae12910b%40sessionmgr13&vid=3&hid=115. Retrieved November 17, 2013. McShane, S. Von Glinow. (2013). Organizational Behavior 6th Edition. McGraw Hill. New York, NY. Field, M; Lo, B. (2009). Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice. The National Academies. . Retrieved November 1, 2013.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Man the Hunter Revisited Essay -- Anthropology, Hunting

Man the Hunter: Revisited In 1966, a group of about fifty anthropologists met in Chicago for a conference that would later known as the â€Å"Man the Hunter† meeting. The meeting contrasted with earlier scholarship and presented a Hollywood approach to the topic of early man, one where our ancestors were strong, powerful, and in control of their environment. Anthropologists Sherwood L. Washburn and C.S. Lancaster (1968), both present at the conference claimed, â€Å"our intellect, interests, emotions, and basic social life—all are evolutionary products of the success of the hunting adaptation†. The book Man the Hunter that emerged from the conference forced a re-evaluation of human subsistence strategies and the role of the hunter in human society. Although the idea of man as hunter, and thus exclusive provider, was initially disproved when it was shown that humans also relied on scavenging and were indeed hunted, the theory maintains relevance in modern anthropology. The theory itself p ushed researchers to challenge prior assumptions regarding the role of females in society and helped develop the hunter-gatherer by sex theory that remains in place today. Importantly, whereas the original man as hunter thesis was groundbreaking because it challenged the scientific communities’ prior belief in an ancient man who was primitive and weak, modern researchers have built off of the man the hunter thesis and now debate the motivations for men to hunt. While our human ancestors may not have been the strong, bloodthirsty, killers once imagined by Raymond Dart, new studies conducted by modern anthropologists have revived this famous, yet once discarded theory. The authors who contributed to the Man the Hunter text (1968) concluded, â€Å"to assert th... ... from a more balanced perspective. Given the importance of the theory and its affect on how modern humans view our ancestral past, the studies themselves have exposed the depth of which cultural bias can affect scientific outcome. The male dominated research of the 1960’s produced an image of ancestral man akin to a comic superhero, large, brawny, and dominant. In response, the female literature of the 1970’s and 1980’s discredited the ideas and placed emphasis on the woman gatherer in early society. Likewise, modern research has attempted to distance itself from the bias of the past, however even today assumptions make there way in to the research. While the man the hunter theory may not be headline news in this modern era, present day research approaching our past from a more scientific approach appears to have restored credibility to the once tarnished model.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Investigatory Project Essay

Garlic is commonly used in culinary and medicine. It grows up to 0.5 m (2ft) in height. Garlic helps prevent heart disease including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure and cancer. Garlic is used to prevent certain types of cancer, including stomach and colon cancers. A Czech study found garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals and garlic also cause insects to react due to its allicin. Allicin is an antibiotic substance that is found when the garlic is crushed. The composition of bulbs is approximately 84.09% water, 13.38% organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while the leaves are 87.14% water, 11.27% organic matter, and 1.59% inorganic matter. Allicin is an antifungal compound (phytoncide) discovered by Chester J. Cavallito and colleagues in 1944. It has been claimed that allicin from crushed garlic can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. By this, we found out that garlic might be effective because of the compound it contains to kill insects in a certain affected plant. It is believed by some to act as a mosquito repellent, but no clinically reported evidence suggests it is actually effective. So we are going to test this garlic insecticide to prove this study. The center point of this study is to create an organic pesticide, a pesticide is a substance formed and established by scientists to act as repellent to harmful insects or organisms that benefit on a certain body that is infected or harmed. It is produced to dissolve the capability of harmful organisms to infect or continue to harm an organism. None of these discoveries and studies involved garlic as pesticide. We are going to prove this study. Conceptual Framework: Garlic as Insecticide Hypothesis: The garlic pesticide conducted contains a substance that is effective to insects. Therefore if it is sprayed to the affected plant with the pest on it, the insect will immediately die because of its reaction to the compound. On the other hand, the plant is safe and not harmed by the substances in the insecticide because it is all natural and organic. Therefore, the conducted pesticide is successful and effective. Definition of Terms: Allicin- is a compound that is created when garlic is chopped or crushed. It is often used in making garlic supplements. Antibiotic- a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria Approximately- an approximation is neither a guess nor an error but as exact as it possibly could be given the constraints Colleagues- are like companion or friend or someone whom you work with Compound- is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions. Immediately- instant or fast Insecticide- is a fluid used to kill harmful insects Organic- this means natural and no other elements are mixed in an organic matter. Reaction- is the physical answer of any living factor in a chemical substance Substance- the term substance specifically applies to a physical material with a definite chemical composition that cannot be separated into a constituent material by physical means.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Banglalink Hr Preview

Orientation to the Report ————————————————- Chapter 1 Introductory Part 1. 1  Ã‚  Ã‚   Origin of the Study The report on HR Management & Development of Banglalink is to be conducted for Ms. Tasnima Aziza, Course Instructor, Human Resource Management, Institute of Business Administration, Jahangirnagar University. Ms. Tasnima orally authorized us to conduct the study of various functions of HR in an existing corporate company to develop our understanding of Human Resource Management as for the partial fulfillment of BBA program. 1. 2  Ã‚  Ã‚   Studying Objectives 1. 2. 1 Broad objective Understanding the features of HRM in real business situation, going beyond the academic theories to develop our career and education in the professional organization. 1. 2. 2 Specific objective Learning and developing the ideas of business practices observing the various integrated proces ses of Human Resource Management under the company â€Å"Banglalink†. Identifying the business nature of the HR functions is the core of our study. 1. 3 Scope of the Study The report cannot say anything about the internal technical matter of the HR Programs (Database of compensation, reward, performance appraisal) of Banglalink. The report also does not cover elaborately HR planning because every company has its own secret workforce planning recipe. 1. 4 Limitations 1. 4. 1 Lack of HR evaluation experience As we are in our very preparatory part of the HRM course, it is difficult for us to make the assessment more complete. 1. 4. 2 Restricted area of information There were some restrictions to have access to the information confidential by concern authority. 1. 5 Methodology 1. 5. 1 Primary sources * Structured interviews were conducted to people involved in HR Management Team of Banglalink. Further, an unstructured interview was conducted to 1. 5. 2 Secondary sources * Annual report * Various publications * Website 1. 6 Report Preview The report is organized n the following structure- * Prefatory Parts * Report Proper * Appended Part 1. 6. 1 Prefatory Parts It consists of title fly, title page, letter of transmittal, table of contents and executive summary. 1. 6. 2 Report Proper This is the main body of thee report consisting of three parts with introduction and conclusion. Part 1- overview of banglalink consisting of 4 chapters Part 2- staffing includes 3 chapters Part 3- maintenance of performance with career management 1. 6. 3 Appended Part It consists of references and a questionnaire. PART ONE An Overview of ————————————————- Chapter 2 Outline of the Organization 2. 1 Company Profile Banglalink – making a difference When Banglalink entered the Bangladesh telecom industry in February 2005, the scenario changed overnight with mobile telephony becoming an extremely useful and affordable communication tool for people across all segments. Within one year of operation, Banglalink became the fastest growing mobile operator of the country with a growth rate of 257%. This milestone was achieved with innovative and attractive products and services targeting the different market segments; aggressive improvement of network quality and dedicated customer care; and effective communication that emotionally connected customers with Banglalink. Banglalink is today the 2nd largest mobile operator in the country and has recently celebrated with 1. 5 crore customers. Headquarters BangladeshIndustry TelecommunicationsType Privately HeldStatus Operating| Location FM Center (Tiger House), Level-1, House: SW (H) 04, Gulshan Avenue Gulshan Model Town, Dhaka, 1212 Care Points Over 700 customer care points including 7 customer sales and care Phone 880 9 885 770 Fax 880 8 827 265 Website www. banglalinkgsm. com 2. 2 History of the Company Sheba Telecom (Pvt. ) Ltd. as granted license in 1989 to operate in the rural areas of 199 upazilas. Later it obtained GSM license in 1996 to extend its business to cellular mobile, radio telephone services. It launched operation in the last quarter of 1997 as a Bangladesh-Malaysia joint venture. In July, 2004, it was reported that Egypt based Orascom Telecom is set to purchase the Malaysian stakes in Sheba Telecom through a hush-hush deal, as Sheba had failed to tap the business potentials in Bangladesh mainly due to a chronic feud between its Malaysian and Bangladeshi partners. An agreement was reached with Orascom wo rth US$25 million was finalized in secret. The pact has been kept secret for legal reasons, considering financial fallout and because of the feud. The main reason for the undercover dealing was the joint venture agreement between the Bangladeshi and the Malaysian partners, which dictates that if any party sells its Sheba shares, the other party will enjoy the first right to buy that. Integrated Services Ltd. (ISL), the Bangladeshi partner, was being ‘officially’ shown as purchasing the shares held by Technology Resources Industries (TRI) of Malaysia for $15 million. ISL then paid another $10 million to Standard Chartered Bank to settle Sheba's liabilities. In September, 2004, Orascom Telecom Holdings purchased 100% of the shares of Sheba Telecom (Pvt. ) Limited (â€Å"Sheba†). It was acquired for US$60 million. Sheba had a base of 59,000 users, of whom 49,000 were regular when it was sold. Afterward it was re-branded and launched its services under the â€Å"Banglalink† brand on February 10, 2005. Banglalink’s license is a nationwide 15-year GSM license and will expire in November, 2011. In March, 2008, Sheba Telecom (Pvt. ) Limited changed its name as Orascom Telecom Bangladesh Limited, matching its parent company name. 2. 3 Banglalink – At a Glance 2. 3. 1 Vision of the Company Banglalink understands people’s needs best and will create and deliver appropriate communication services to improve its people’s life and make it easier. † 2. 3. 2 Mission of the Company Banglalink’s success is based on a simple mission: â€Å"Bringing mobile telephony to the masses by reducing total cos t of buying and using mobile phones† Banglalink changed the mobile phone status from luxury to a necessity and brought mobile telephone to the general people of Bangladesh and made a place in their hearts. 2. 3. 2 Values of the Origination The mobile phone has become the symbol for the positive change in Bangladesh. This positive change that is quite correctly attributed to Banglalink, has become the corporate positioning of Banglalink and is translated in their slogan â€Å"making a difference† or â€Å"din bodol†. â€Å"making a difference† is not only in the telecom industry, but also through its products and services, to the lives of its customers. This corporate stance of â€Å"making a difference† has been reflected in everything Banglalink does. 2. 4 Employee Overview 2. 4. 1 Employee Portfolio Company Size| 5,000 employees; 2,000 are direct employees and the rest are indirect | Common Job Titles| Manager| 11%| Executive| 10%| Engineer| 8%| Zonal Sales Manager| 6%| Senior Engineer| 5%| | | | Median Age| 28 years| Gender| Male| 89% | Female| 11%| | 2. 4. 2 Management Team managing director & chief executive officer|  »Ã‚  ahmed abou doma| chief financial officer|  »Ã‚  mohamed hassan osman| chief technical officer|  »Ã‚  ahmed fady| chief commercial officer|  »Ã‚  asher yaqub khan| sales director|  »Ã‚  arif mehmood malik| customer care director|  »Ã‚  muhammad arshad| human resources & administration director|  »Ã‚  tarek beram| head of pmo & supply chain|  »Ã‚  abdus saboor| egulatory & legal affairs director|  »Ã‚  zakiul islam| information technology director|  »Ã‚  nizar el-assad| company secretary|  »Ã‚  m nurul alam| 2. 5 Organization Structure Structure provided by Banglalink itself. It is here by noted that, HR director holds two functional dept. under his direct supervision. ——————————â€⠀Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- Chapter 3 Human Resources & Administration 3. 1 HR Mission â€Å"the real tigers behind the stripes! † â€Å"We, at Banglalink, believe that our teamwork is our greatest asset. Useful contributions made by each individual bring us that much closer to our goals. The Banglalink family is made up of a group of passionate individuals, uniquely qualified from diverse disciplines but working towards our vision. † Thus, Banglalink has delineated their HR mission regarding their employees and customers. 3. 2 HR Dept. and Divisions The Human Resource Department of Banglalink has three departments under control of the Head of the Department. 1. Compensation and Benefits 2. Employees Relations 3. Organizational Development (Commercial and Sales) 4. Organizational Development (IT) Compensation and benefit department show interest on the employee reward or compensation and other benefits. They approve sick leave, annual leave and other fringe benefits of the employee. The company gives their employee an increment at the end of the year based on their performance appraisal and the recommendation of their line manager. The second department is employee relations. They deal with the employee behavior with their superiors. They also train their employees if needed. In some cases, Banglalink borrow trainers from abroad to train their employees. The organizational development has two different divisions. One deals with the development of network and other IT. The other division deal with sales and other commercial aspects. The most widely criticized service of Banglalink is its network coverage. So they have created separate department of HR to keep their IT support in continuous construction. Head of Human Resources Compensation & Benefits Manager Compensation & Benefits Senior Executive Administrative Assistant Employees Relations Manager Employees Relations Executive Employees Relations Senior Executive Employees Relations Executive Organizational Development Manager Organizational Development Senior Executive Organizational Development Executive Organizational Development Manager Organizational Development Assistant Manager Organizational Development Executive NEW organization chart for Human Resources department Payroll Senior Executive ————————————————- Chapter 4 SHRM Awareness of Banglalink The Strategic Human resource management literature is increasingly concerned with whether human resources can be source of competitive advantage. More recently, this literature has begun to draw from the resource based view of strategy. Banglalink believes that teamwork is their greatest asset. Useful contributions made by each individual bring that much closer to our goals. The Banglalink family is made up of a group of passionate individuals, uniquely qualified from diverse disciplines but working towards our vision. Thus, Banglalink refocus on the conception of Human Resource Competencies within a human resource-capability (RC model) view of strategy to articulate their strategic role for HRs in and outside the origination. It is worth noting to the traditional situational-contingency perspective. Finally, Banglalink’s RC model sees their HRs and capabilities as a driver for their strategy. ———————————————— Chapter 5 HR Policies in a Global Extent Banglalink ensures for the tigers/tigress * a  friendly, professional and mutually supportive environment that encourages our people to develop their potentials to an optimal level. * a  true quality of pro fessionalism that can be found in all world-class multinational companies. * team oriented professionals, who contribute to the greater whole of the organization through their participation in decision making situations. * a  system which recognizes and rewards groups as well as individuals for their efforts and contributions to the company. By developing their policies in the following sectors- * Workforce planning * Recruitment (sometimes separated into attraction and selection) * Induction, Orientation and On-boarding * Skills management * Training and development * HR Personnel administration * Compensation in wage or salary * Payroll (sometimes assigned to accounting rather than HRM) * Employee benefits administration * Personnel cost planning * Performance appraisal * Labor relations PART Two Staffing & Workforce Planning ————————————————- Chapter 6 Strategic HR Planning and Job Analysis 6. The Overall Purpose Banglalink developed the following aspirations for their strategic HR planning. * Ensure adequate human resources to meet the strategic goals and operational plans of an organization – the right people with the right skills at the right time. * Identified and minimised capability risks. * Ski ll development and training policies and practices are linked to strategy. * Remain flexible so that an organization can manage change if the future is different than anticipated 6. 2 The strategic HR planning process Banglalink follows the conventional Four steps to develop their HR planning model. Assessing the current HR capacity * Forecasting HR requirements * Gap analysis * Developing HR strategies to support organizational strategies 6. 2. 1 Assessing current HR capacity Based on its strategic plan, the first step in the strategic HR planning process is to assess the current HR capacity of the organization. The knowledge, skills and abilities of the current staff need to be identified. This can be done by developing a skills inventory for each employee. The skills inventory should go beyond the skills needed for the particular position. List all skills each employee has demonstrated. For example, recreational or volunteer activities may involve special skills that could be relevant to the organization. Education levels and certificates or additional training should also be included. SWOT Analysis During this phase, a company begins to analyze and look at what skills, knowledge and abilities are available internally, and where shortages in terms of people skills or equipment may exist. Organization begins to analyze its external environment, its strength and weaknesses, its opportunities and threats, in terms of whether they can be achieved with the current organizational resources. . 2. 2 Forecasting HR requirements The next step is to forecast HR needs for the future based on the strategic goals of the organization. Realistic forecasting of human resources involves estimating both demand and supply. Questions to be answered include: * How many staff will be required to achieve the strategic goals of the organization? * What jobs will need to be filled? * What sk ill sets will people need? When forecasting demands for HR, Banglalink HR professionals also assess the challenges that it will have to meet its staffing need based on the external environment. 6. 2. 3 Gap analysis In The next step, HR personnel determine the gap between where it wants to be in the future and where they are now. The gap analysis includes identifying the number of staff and the skills and abilities required in the future in comparison to the current situation. They also look at all its HR management practices to identify practices that could be improved or new practices needed to support the organization's capacity to move forward. 6. 2. 4 Developing HR strategies to support organizational strategies The five core HR strategies for meeting an organization's needs in the future followed by Banglalink. . Restructuring strategies 2. Training and development strategies 3. Recruitment strategies 4. Outsourcing strategies 5. Collaboration strategies 6. 3 Job analysis A job analysis is a step-by-step specification of an employment position's requirements, functions, and procedures. Just as a seed cannot blossom into a flower unless the ground is properly prepared, many human resource m anagement (HRM) practices cannot blossom into competitive advantage unless grounded on an adequate job analysis. 6. 4 Purpose of the Job Analysis The HR department of Banglalink conducts job analysis to prepare job description and job specification which in turn helps to hire the right quality of workforce into the organization. * The general purpose is the job and compensation plans. * Establishing fair and effective hiring practices * Developing training and appraisal programs * Remedial uses 6. 5 Information Collection for Job Analysis The Different Types of Job Content Information Broad Level Function or Duty * Definition: The major areas of the job-holder's responsibility. Example: A professor's functions are teaching, research, and service to the university/community. Intermediate Level Task * Definition: What a worker does when carrying out a function of the job; it is an activity that results in a specific product or service. * Example: The function of teaching requires a professor to perform several tasks like lecturing, giving/grading exams, and meeting with students. Work Behavior * Definition: An important activity that is not task specific; such behavior is engaged in when performing a variety of tasks. Example: â€Å"Communicating†Ã¢â‚¬â€a professor engages in this behavior when performing several tasks, such as lecturing and meeting with students. Specific Level Subtasks * Definition: The steps carried out in the completion of a task. * Example: The task of providing lectures consists of several subtasks, such as reading the text and other relevant materials, deciding on what information to convey, and determining how this information can be communicated in a clear and interesting manner. Critical Incidents * Definition: Specific activities that distinguish effective from ineffective job performance. Example: â€Å"The professor uses several examples when explaining difficult concepts. † 6. 6 Key Factors in Job Analysis Task identities 1. Variety 2. Responsibility 3. Autonomy 4. Working environment 5. Recognition and support 6. Outcomes & performance measures 6. 7 Sources of Data Information associated with a job analysis can be gained from the following sources: * supervisor/manager of the proposed/established position, * the current incumbent (or a staff member who has undertaken the duties in the past), * team members of the proposed/established position, a staff member from another work area with a similar position, * managers who employ similar positions, * performance plans and key performance indicators of current incumbent, * workforce plans, * program timetables or customer feedback forms, * student evaluations, and * HR staffs. 6. 8 Data Analysis During the analysis phase the following should be included: * Group the tasks into functional areas, eg. Process enrolment forms and respond to student enquiries should be under the functional heading of Student Administration. * Eliminate all unnecessary and wasteful activities. Simplify unnecessarily complex activities or procedures. * List the functional areas in order of importance. —†”——————————————- Chapter 7 Recruitment and Selection Employees Recruitment is the process of seeking sources for job candidates and attracting qualified candidates for jobs in the public or private sector. It is a process by which the needed personnel are found and they become interested to apply for the vacant post. The Selection Process is the process of choosing from among available applicants who are most likely to successfully perform a job. The objective the selection process is to choose the individual who can successfully perform the job from the pool of qualifies candidates. 7. 1 Recruitment & selection process flowchart Organization Vacant or new position occurs Perform job analysis & plan recruiting effort Generate applicant pool via internal or external recruitment methods Evaluate applicants via selection Process process Select applicants Make offer 7. 2 Recruitment process of Banglalink 7. 2. 1 Recruitment Goals Banglalink has recognized the following recruitment goals over their competitors to achieve their HR Vision and Mission. Attract highly qualified applicants. * Attract applicants willing to accept offers. * Fill vacancies quickly. * Fill vacancies at minimal cost. * Hire people who perform well. * Hire people who will continue with the organization. 7. 2. 2 Sources of Recruitment Recruitment sources are divided by two parts – 1. Internal sources of recruitment: Promoting employees is an internal s ource of recruitment. 2. External sources of recruitment: the external sources of recruitment are- Advertisement Advertisement is prepared by Banglalink for publication in the national Daily newspaper. Cyberspace Recruiting Banglalink use the internet to recruit new employees by adding a recruitment section to their web site. Employment agency Agencies like ‘PeopleScape’ help Banglalink to find the require-skilled employee. 7. 2. 3 Issuances of Interview Card After receiving the application Banglalink prepares necessary database of the candidates and after screening the applications they issue invitation card by normal mail but in case of emergency currier service used, or interview schedule should be known to the candidates over telephone. On the basis of resume evaluation, ratings are made as per the weight age chart. . 3 Selection Process of Banglalink 7. 3. 1 Interview Method Interview-1: Short listed candidates are called for interview-1. In this step a panel of concerned managers and experts will interview the incumbent. Result of the interview-1 is published in the Company Notice Board. Interview-2: The selected candidates from the first interview-1 are called for a second interview which will be taken by the head of the department and head of the human resource. Final interview: The candidates who approved from the interview-2, is called the final interview. Final interview is taken by Director. Placement: Banglalink gather necessary documents and sends the selected candidates to his/her respective department for placement. 7. 3. 2 Present Condition about Selection Procedure of Banglalink (For the contractual employees to be permanent worker) The company selects qualified Personnel/Specialized officer/Junior executives on the basis of some relevant tests based on the following manner. ————————————————- Chapter 8 Training and Development Training is important for an organization because every organization needs stable, trained and experienced people to perform its actions. Employee training is a learning experience. Basically employee training is present-oriented training that focuses on individual’s current jobs, enhancing those specific skills and abilities to immediately perform the jobs. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Bangladeshi Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results. 8. 1 Training and Development process of BANGLALINK Banglalink is the second largest mobile operator in our country. For their employee training they follow both * On-the-job method and Off-the-job training method. 8. 1. 1 On-the-job training is when an employee learn the through his/her daily work and also learn from a mentor. May be the manager or immediate senior to the employee can take over this task. Slowly he learn about his position clearly and also the method that the organization follow to accomplish their activities. This organization arranges a performance appraisa l after a certain period of time. And to assess their employee performance they follow the†Competency Gap Analysis†. Now there are two categories of competencies required to do the internal tasks. Core Competency- the basic requirements for a job. For example -communication skills -team work -fluency in English speaking etc. 2 Technical Competency- if there is any technical eligibility needed for a particular position This analysis is sort of self analysis. The manager gives the employees specific categories and asks to evaluate themselves in those categories. They have certain parameters like – * Unacceptable (U) * Need Improvement (NI) * Meet Expectation (MI) * Exceed Expectation(EE) * Outstanding (O) The manager assesses these results and made their decision that if the employee needs any training. Then they report to the HR about the number of employees need training. If an employee is lack of core competency then the management arrange for a training internally. 8. 1. 2 Off-the-job training And if it is for a higher level position or lack of technical competency then the HR arrange for an Off-the-job training. 8. 2 Outsourcing There are some organizations that provide corporate training. Banglalink outsources these organizations and arrange the training program. They segregate their employees in different batches if the number is elevated and place different time schedule for them. HOLISTIC, AAMRA are two organizations who provide training for the employees of Banglalink. PART THREE Sustaining Sky-scraping Performance : Performance Management ————————————————- Chapter 9 Performance Management Every year, employees of Banglalink experience an evaluation of their past performance. There is a one hour informal discussion between employees and their supervisors. This evaluations lead to some direct effects to their work lives. Based on the result they get increment, promotion or assistance in personal development areas for which the employee needs training. The performance management system serves three purposes that are designed to support employees, appraisers and organization. 9. 1 Appraisal They follow a common appraisal process. The chart below shows the appraisal process Banglalink follow the Competency GAP Analysis to measure the performance of their employees. There is a number of traits and a range of performance for each degree of each trait. It is used to identify the score that best describes the employee’s level of performance. 9. 2 Who does the Appraising? Generally the immediate supervisor does the appraising in Banglalink. First, they arrange self rating for the employees. Based on the self rating, their past behaviors and information from their peers, the supervisors submit the appraisal to the head of the department. 9. 3 Frequency of Appraisal The performance occurs two times in a year. The first evaluation occurs at the end of the year and according to the evaluation the company announces the name of the promoted employees. Another evaluation take place in the middle of the year and the worthy employees get promoted. On the other hand, the employees get only one increment in a year. This way the company tries to keep good performance of their employees. 9. 4 The Appraisal Interview The appraisal interview is done for comparing the evaluation and employees expectation about their performance. The appraisal interview can be four types * Satisfactory- promotable * Satisfactory- not promotable * Unsatisfactory- correctable * Unsatisfactory- uncorrectable In this interview session the superior encourage the employee to talk about his expectation, if he aspects any promotion or have a good evaluation which will lead into a better payment. Sometimes if the employee has a bad evaluation and had been criticized for his past action that is in the correctable category, the supervisor’s aim is to lead the interview such a way that it will improve the interviewee’s performance in near future. If an employee is in the uncorrectable category the supervisor will warn him informally and if that doesn’t work he will proceed for a written warning. ————————————————- Chapter 10 Career Management Generally the responsibility to managing a career belongs to an individual. There was time when employment with a reputed firm actually meant lifelong employment. Today with intense competition everywhere, coupled with economic changes sweeping the world, companies are aggressively pursuing the strategies for acquisition, divestment, down-sizing, outsourcing, and synergy through alliances. In such an uncertain environment, it is ultimately the responsibility of the individual to decide and make choices to pursue a desired career. An organization can at best support an individual’s career aspirations if it falls in line with its business goals. 10. 1 Role of HR Employee loyalty to the company is higher when the job fulfills intrinsic needs and personal goals of the employees. By assisting an individual in planning his career and providing opportunities for career development, Banglalink ensures higher loyalty and productivity from employees. The HR professionals of Banglalink match and support career expectation of high performers with organizational requirements. Few of the ways in which this has been done is shown below: * Mentoring- through which the organization create context for directing careers of youngsters * Enriching the jobs – Encourage people to continuously redesign the work procedures * Job rotations in line with individual apability and company requirements * Providing organization wide, team based and individual learning opportunities * Taking stock of future leadership requirements and designing the career path of capable and performing individuals * Design developmental programs that improve the employability of the people and engage them with challenging assignments 10. 2 Role of Individual and Organization Role of an individual and that of an organization with respect to some of the aspects of individual carreer planning is brought out below: Individual and organizational role in career management| Key Aspect| Individual role| Organizational Role| Goal seting (by an indiviual)| Developing and gaining clarity on long term goal | * Managing the expectations realistically * clarifying possibilities of knowledge based and hierarchical based goals | Action planning(by an individual)| Planning and duration of jobs to be taken up, companies or industry to be targeted, and other developmental needs | * Support individual plan through movement along the career path * Job rotations, advancements, problem solving assignments etc. | Mentoring & coaching (by the org. | Learn from the experience and insights of mentors / coaches | * Align individuals to the company values * provide informal guidance about building career within the organization| Assessment (by individual & org)| Learn about present profile and gaps that need to be fulfilled in the long run| * assess values synchronization, performance, potential and likely career path| Development (by the individual & org. )| Obtaining exter nal certifications as authentication of skills possessed| * Honest performance appraisals, providing opportunity to implement learning for organizational benefit| Challenging work (by the org. | focus on de-bottlenecking processes, thus keeping the element of â€Å"challenge in the work† alive | * opportunity to participate in various task forces to solve real time business problems * exposure to new business improvement tools| ————————————————- Chapter 11 Compensation 11. 1 Category of Compensation Banglalink provides a lucrative compensation package for their employees. The category of compensation can be two types * Direct financial payments * Indirect financial payments 11. 1. 1 Direct financial Payments This is a form of payments which is in the form of Wages * Salaries * Bonuses * Overtimes etc. 11. 1. 2 Indirect financial Payments This form of payment consist s of financial benefits such as * Insurance- they provide health insurance for the employees * Transport- for call center agents Banglalink provide transportation service as the agents have to perform night duty. * House- the company provide house for its higher level employees 11. 2 Compensation Process The compensation process is based on four particular degrees. | | Requirement | Degree of compensation| | Outstanding| | Exceed Expectation| | Meet Expectation| | Need Improvement| 1. 3 Employee Benefits Banglalink provides benefits to their employees according to the Government Rules. The employees have health insurance, they get a good payment, they get bonuses and increments etc. The employees obtain vacations like * Sick Leave * Casual Leave * Annually Earned Leave * Maternity Leave (for women) ————————————————- Chapter 12 Health and Safety The terms health, safety and security are closely related to each other. Health is the general state of well being. It not only includes physical well being, but also emotional and mental well being. Safety refers to the act of protecting the physical well being of an employee. It will include the risk of accidents caused due to machinery, fire or diseases. Security refers to protecting facilities and equipments from unauthorized access and protecting. For smooth functioning of an organization, the company ensures safety and security of its employees. Health and safety form an integral part of work environment. A work environment enhances the well being of employees and thus accident free. 12. 1 HR Responsibility In Banglalink the responsibility of employee health and safety falls on the supervisors or HR manager. The HR manager help in coordinating safety programs, making employees aware about the health and safety policy of the company, conduct formal safety training, etc. Responsibilities of managers: * Monitor health and safety of employees * Drug testing * Coach employees to be safety conscious * Investigate accidents if happens * Communicate about safety policy to employees 12. 2 Supervisors Responsibility The supervisors and departmental heads are responsible for maintaining safe working conditions. They are responsible for * Provide technical training regarding prevention of accidents * Coordinate health and safety programs Train employees on handling facilities an equipments * Develop safety reporting systems * Maintaining safe working conditions Again the company provides health insurance to their employees. They also arrange a monthly increment system in case of an employee is sick and also provide sick leave to the employee. ———————à ¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- Chapter 13 Employment Method 13. 1 Promotion For promotion Banglalink give importance to those employees who perform well. An employee can’t get promotion unless his job length is one year in the company. 13. 2 Transfer of Employees Transfers take place when it’s needed. Banglalink has their office in the six divisions around Bangladesh. They give importance to the origin of the employees. Suppose, an employee’s permanent address is in Rajshahi, so if they take a decision to transfer that employee they will give priority to Rajshahi. 13. 3 Retirement The company observes its 5th anniversary few days ago. The company is young and the highest age of employees is 40 years in an average. Yet they have not planned for Retirement procedure. Concluding Part ————————————————- Chapter 14 Winding Up 14. 1 Conclusion Growth over the last years have been fuelled with innovative products and services targeting different market segments, aggressive improvement of network quality and dedicated customer care, creating an extensive distribution network across the country, and establishing a strong brand that emotionally connected customers with Banglalink. It made them possible only for their SHRM skill and their dedicated relationship manager who provides the employees with personalized HR care and innovative-proactive management round the clock. 14. Criticisms Banglalink initially failed to expand its EEO opportunities pace of employees with increased numbers of subscribers. This is because Banglalink was the fastest growing mobile operator at that time in the whole world. It has the record of violating the Employment Act of Age Discrimination and Employment Act for Women. However, the state of affairs is getting better now-a-days. They are investing to improve their EEO prospects especially in gender and tribal segments. References Contact persons: Md. Farhad Hossain Dept. of Quality Assurance, Banglalink Shiban Mahmud HR Senior Executive, Human Resource, Bangallink Website: www. banglalinkgsm. com http://www. linkedin. com/companies/banglalink Appendices ————————————————- Questionnaires 1. How does the company’s mission and vision influence/affect the employee? 2. Are there any divisions under Human Resource Department? 3. If yes, how they are related with the functional HR dept.? 4. Is there any formal/conventional structure for the HR Department? 5. How does the HR Structure affect the Mission and Vision of the company? 1. What are the future directions/objectives of the local area? . What are the responsibilities of the position? 3. Is the position academic or professional/general (does the role require knowledge of the teaching and learning environment)? 4. What is the length of appointment and/or service fraction? 5. What are the specific tasks and how will they be done? 6. W hy do they need to be done? 7. What impact will there be on other positions in the area? 8. Where will the work be done? (physical location) 9. Who are the clients and what are their needs? 10. How the work is currently organized? 11. Who will the position report to? 12. Will any positions report to this position? 13. What is the minimum knowledge and skills required to do the position? 14. What equipment or working aids are required? 1. What are the recruitment goals of banglalink does keep up? 2. Sources of recruitment? 3. Are there any external sources of recruitment process? 4. What are the components of selection process the banglalink does sustain? 5. Who conduct the interview? 6. What are the selection processes of contractual employees to be permanent employee? 1. What types of training program are you using to enhance your employees’ skills & abilities? . How would you determine the needs of training of an employee to do certain task? 3. Is there any outsourcing organization that provides training for the employees of banglalink? 4. Does banglalink think that there is any requirement of cross-cultural training program for the employees to adopt with the on-going globalization process? 1. How does banglalink manage their performance ap praisal process for the employees? 2. Is there any absolute appraisal method that banglalink is currently following? 3. How does HR dept. monitor their employees’ performance & evaluate or measure them? . While managing the performance assessment, does the decisions may become emotional or focus on the process? 1. What types of reward system does the HR dept. maintain with their employees? 2. How does banglalink relate the motivational factors with their compensation programs? 3. Any special cases of compensation or reward programs? 4. Is there any govt. influence on compensation administration? 5. What is the employee benefits HR dept. does provide the employees? 6. Is there any current employee legally considered necessary benefit the HR dept. is dealing with? . What does banglalink think about career management from the perspective of the company? 2. What kind of role does the HR dept. play in career development of an employee? As a mentor or advisor? 3. Does the company a rrange career workshops or carry out career counseling? 1. What types of promotional decisions does the HR dept. capture? 2. How does they manage employee transferring for the betterment of the geo-expand of the company’s service? 3. What are the retirement policies that the company does follow? 4. What’s about managing employee turnover