Wednesday, January 30, 2019

A fence should not be built on the U.S. – Mexican Border

The U.S. should build a seawall between itself and Mexico, topped with razor wire. This is to the highest degree toughening immigration laws and the strict enforcement of laws already widely discussed.The building is a two thousand-mile-long fence would cost ab emerge 680 (m) million dollars, and it would slow border crossings. It is for the idea of candidates running for president to rent clear and aggressive plans for dealing with immigration.It also gives the idea of doing something that might rattling work to stop illegal aliens from flooding into the United States is actually drawing great interest. It wont go away. Illegal immigration is not just impacting the marge States. Illegal aliens are showing up everywhither. Constitutionally it is a federal responsibility to nurture the 50 states from invasion and as a operable matter it is impacting all of us.BackgroundFor those people who do not live in the U.S. of America or have not heard about it, U.S.A. presidency has decided to construct a wall along the border of Mexico to draw down to keep out illegal and MS13 folk members. The MS13 is a dangerous clan that specializes in smuggling drugs and people across borders and has made their way from capital of South Carolina to Northern Mexico and intend to get into The U.S. of America.Also, there have been reports of the AL Qaida attempting to get the MS13 to smuggle THEMSELVES into the U.S. of A. so they can continue their reign of terror. The Mexican organization feels that it is unnecessary that there is building a wall and have started examine President Bush to Hitler because of the Berlin wall.Personally think that the wall should be built to protect American from the MS13 and to control the amount of illegally migrating to the U.S. of America (All to treasure the Innocent.Tue January 24 2006 2002. http// or a refugee rights groups across the countrified are straight moving in the direction of putting immigration in the context of a globular economy, globalization, and people on the drift escaping poverty, hunger, civil war, and persecution. NAFTA (the North American Free Trade Agreement) kicked off that trend.When it was testified at the NAFTA hearings that Mexican and Aliens complained of why they werent including immigration in the context of a financial bounteous divvy up agreement. Why were they focusing on the free safari of merchandise scarce not on the free movement of people? Basically its a labor issue.California has always been impacted hugely by immigration, not just by people from Mexico. Its now estimated even by the INS (Immigration and Naturalization Service) that there are at to the lowest degree five million immigrants in the U.S. who are unregistered. California usually comes in with at least half of those immigrants, not only because of its juxtaposition to Baja California, but also its a place where people can blend into cities homogeneous L.A. and San Francis co. Theres about nine million in these cities and about a ordinal are immigrants and refugees.It is important that it begins addressing immigration within the context of a global economy. Globalization affects the United States because investments in other countries have impacts such as people leaving that country, the displacement of jobs, jobs moving in and out of a country.Primarily focuses on human rights and nowhere is human rights more impacted than on the U.S.-Mexico border. These have really been a hateful time for Americans especially with the snap incident by the military machine.Right after that, other military operations were exposed, including here inCalifornia where National Guard troops have been out in camouflage, conceal in the brush on the pretext of looking for drugs and immigrants. In addition, there has been introduced legislation in the House to send 10,000 military troops in to California.This is in addition to 5,000 Border Patrol agents approved by Congre ss. Thats vent to interrupt a lot of movement. It could eventually interfere with free trade because how long will Mexico put up with this confrontation by the military on the border.Going back to history, the U.S. contracted with Mexicans to come to work here in the 30s and 40s and 50s. Then the xenophobia started, the scapegoat, and you had massive raids and deportations of hundreds of thousands of Mexicans. U.S. citizens and legal residents as well as undocumented were all sent to Mexico in the 30s and 40s and 50s.During 50s, operation wetback, and even though Im a fifth generation U.S. citizen, right on these streets around here I used to be stopped on the way home from school, or visiting my girlfriend, or going downtown. The police used to smack me up against the wall and call the Border Patrol. They get used to do in at least every other week. They used to take out of jobs, after school jobs, in restaurants, hotels by among Mexicans

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Recruitment Policy Essay

This policy defines how an administration intents to do or act when recruiting its employees. It guides management on issues to do with recruitment and ensures that there is consistency in recruitment decisions and procedures. It defines when the recruitment is going to be done and also the source of the candidates for recruitment. The policy also outlines the methods of recruitment and the confine of the job advertising.The recruitment policy states the composition of a team of hatful responsible for the excerpt of the ideal candidates as well as the choice techniques to be white plagued. This company recruits employees when need arises, that is when there is a job vacuum as a result of resignation, death or growth of the brass instrument where new positions emerge. The company uses external sources of recruitment such as vocational training centres, the open labour market as well as its competitors.The company uses advertising in the newspaper and employee referrals as i ts methods of recruitment. The job advert in the newspaper contains the company identification, job summary, key duties, date of premise of duty, the closing date for applications, the application procedure and the contact details of the organisation. The selection team will consist of the General Manager and the supervisor of the part in which the candidate will be working in as well as senior management. The company will mainly use personality tests and assessment centres as selection tests.The company is an equal probability employer and intents to accord equal opportunities to all applicants irrespective of sex, race, creed, or marital locating in issues relating to recruitment in accordance with the equal opportunity policy. On issues relating to recruitment, management should use this policy as a guideline so as to ensure consistency and equity in their decisions. Any recruitment decisions which are made without following this policy will be deemed as invalid. This policy a pplies to all employees and the General Manager is the responsible authority for devising sure that it is followed.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Kraft and Cadbury Merger Essay

What is the role of the government in this uniting? What is the imp cultivate on the shargonholders, what atomic number 18 their thoughts well-nigh it and is it a successful merger or non. opposite(a) than kraft and Cadbury four aspects of doing business transnationally has been discussed and their influence in an international business career. 1. 1 How and why kraft paper identified Cadbury as a potential partner? On 19th January 2010 Kraft the American Giant, acquired Cadbury the well-nigh popular and nonpareil of the most selling brand in chocolates for $11. 5bn.The ground for Kraft to identify Cadbury as its potential partner and still subsequently Cadbury rejected its first bid on 7th September 2009, and consequently came up with a higher bid, was that Kraft wanted to bring in the most love British Chocolates to the States, because the chocolates that America produces are only love by Americans and are non so loved around the world, while they targeted the British c omp each because they make expose chocolates incontrovertible they wanted to get into the British securities industryplace and to get into the British market remaining into the food industry they could not identify a better option than acquiring Cadbury by merging these twain companies one they take in the British market of dairy food plus they introduce their products into Britain and the Cadbury products into USA having the plus points of some(prenominal) cultures.Expected benefits Kraft is the second largest Food drunkenness comp both(prenominal) in the world, which produced receipts of 49. billion USD in the year 2010 (Kraftfoodscompany, (2011) and is operational in more than 150 counties worldwide and has an Employee offspring of around 100,000. Where as Cadbury on the other hand is the second largest Confectionary Company in the world, which produced revenue of 5. 38 billion USD in the year 2008 (Cadbury annual report, 2008) and has a genuinely strong hold in Asi a Pacific and Latin America and has an Employee number of around 70,000. When these two giants combine, one American Giant and other British Giant, they both(prenominal) can conquer the food industry if they both are managed well. In 2010 Kraft already made revenue subjoin of 0. 7 billion USD from 2008 to 2010 later the take over of Cadbury (CNN, 2011).Kraft and Cadbury can both work genuinely well and can avail a spread of benefits from each other provided that both them work together, because Kraft has its own guidance too large in scale and Cadbury as well. 1. 3 Synergies for both companies involved? After the merger of Kraft and Cadbury, both companies are evaluate to exact revenue synergies and have an increase of the net revenue of up to 5% or more. They are targeting the long-term output for it. Which as a top will increase the net revenue. The combined company (Kraft and Cadbury) is targeting to increase their per share cost in 2011 of approximately $0. 05 and on th e basis of cash. These two companies combined can make a administrate of revenue. Parliament publication, 2012) opposite than that Cadbury has other channels of gaining revenue like gas filling stations, receding shops which are well cosmos forced by Cadbury and on the other hand Kraft has a strong hold on supermarkets and groceries. As they are merged nowadays the overall distri yetion will be higher for Kraft and Cadbury and their revenue will increase. Both of the companies has opposite markets that they have captured for Cadbury they have a large influence in Asia, Africa, Mexico and Turkey and for Kraft they have more influence in Brazil and China. By combining together they both can capture almost e genuinely market around the globe.The total value of the British chocolate confectionery welkin amounts to approximately EUR 3. 9 billion. In the UK, the parties activities overlap only in the markets of tablets and pralines. Kraft is active in tablets and pralines mainly wit h its brands drawa, Toblerone and Terrys chocolate Orange, and Cadbury with its brands dairy farm Milk, Roses and Green & ampamp Black. (http//ec. europa. eu/competition/mergers/ gaucheries/decisions/m5644_20100106_20212_en. pdf page 9 ) (Kraft Foods Official 2011 Report) 1. 4 The risks associated with the choice of acquisition as an approach to this accompaniment partnership The first and last risk which is associated with this particular partnership is of memory their word.The official position of the Fairtrade Foundation is the following The Fairtrade Foundation is very eminent of our relationship with Cadbury, and what we have achieved together, including the conversion of Cadbury Dairy Milk to Fairtrade in the UK and Ireland in 2009, now being extended to terce other international markets Canada, Australia and rising Zealand. This has had a tremendously positive public response, and is delivering major benefits to cocoa farmers in Ghana, quadrupling the amount they are able to sell on Fairtrade basis in 2010, compared to 2008. The Fairtrade Foundation and Cadbury have a shared vision for the future, and in that respect are contractual commitments in place, which will form part of any intellectual property transfer among Cadbury and Kraft in any takeover.We believe that the progress we have made together in strengthen cocoa farmers to deliver long term sustainability of the cocoa supply chain, on with a fast growing level of consumer demand for Fairtrade products, not tho in the UK scarcely globally, present a unique and compelling case for continuing to pursue the Cadbury commitment to their Cocoa fibrenership and to Fairtrade, and taking it even further in coming months and historic period. Treehugger, 2012) According to the Official Statement, they will dress Fairtrade for both the companies and Kraft confirmed that it would uphold Cadburys commitments to Fairtrade which were that Dairy Milk will continue to be Fairtrade in the UK an d Northern Ireland and in three more markets, Canada, Australia and New Zealand by early 2010 Green &ampBlacks (which is owned by Cadbury) will move its inbuilt range to Fairtrade by the end of 2011. (http//www. publications. parliament. uk/pa/cm200910/cmselect/cmbis/234/234. df ) But no one is quiet happy with the outcome of the merger. Because Kraft did not really act upon what they stated to do before the merger, expression of the former first minister of religion of Scotland Jack McConnell asked Kraft in the Scottish Parliament to Honour the Fairtrade Part of the deal, he said There have been concerns expressed for many years that Kraft has never shown any enthusiasm for fair trade and thusly this must be under threat as a result of the takeover. (Treehugger, 2012). Warren Buffett isnt too keen now either. Discussing the CEO of Kraft, he said She thinks this is a good deal, I think its a bad deal. Mind you, he is probably not worrying about the fairtrade aspect.Cadburys 6,000 UK workers are overly worried, because it is a hi risk for the workers to now work at Cadbury under the American Management which has already influenced the Cadbury management. 1. 5 Feasible alternative? The most feasible alternative to Kraft for Cadbury was Hershey Chocolates, which is overly an American Chocolate brand. In 2009 before the hostile takeover of Cadbury by Kraft, Cadbury talked to Hershey personal to include themselves in the bid so they can propose Hershey over Kraft to its shareholders and are taken over by Hershey, but unfortunately Hershey did not want to be the part of the bidding struggle over Cadbury with Kraft because Hershey is its self weighing up.Even for Kraft Hershey was a good alternative over Cadbury because both are American Companies and would agnize eachother easily rather than taking over a company is a completely different region, Ferrero maker of Rocher chocolate and Nutella is overly a very good alternative for Cadbury but at the time of bid concord to Trevor Datson the spokesperson for Cadbury said the company had no comment.No one at Ferrero was immediately available for comment. closeness of solid groundal and corporate cultures Neither is the Nation nor the Corporate section is happy with the merger of the both companies, because for public at that place is a fear of cutting off more than 6000 jobs is Britian and more than 46,000 globally so people working at Cadbury are really xenophobic to work at it and other than employees the Corporate personal are also in fear of that the world leading brands like Dairy Milk, microchip and Wipsa are at risk with this merger and the shareholder are also not very happy with the $11. 5 bn deal.Critical Evaluation of both the companies about this Partnership Both of the companies had their own management and their own elan of doing business around the world. As Kraft is majorly dairy products maker and is being loved by that around the world. Where as Cadbury is als o a very well known name in the chocolate industry, because a lot of people in United Kingdom and at other major parts of the world such as Asia and Africa Cadbury is really loved for chocolate. As through the analysis this is a very hostile takeover i. e. , between Kraft and Cadbury, after taking over Cadbury Kraft accepted some of the points that they will do and hang on is at it is and after that takeover they did not manage to fulfill those commitments which lead to misunderstanding between these two companies after their merger.As Kraft agreed that they will stick to Faretrade organization and to keep the same cocoa supplier as Cadbury had before and before the merger Cadbury was to close one of their plants but after merger Kraft did not do so and now they are facing these problems which are not very good in the long run for both of the companies. Involvement Of the Government In this hostile takeover not just the employees and shareholders but also the government, had and al so has issues with this mergers. With the merger of Kraft Foods and Cadbury a number of master(prenominal) issues have bin highlighted in the way through which the foreign takeovers of UK companies are conducted.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Ap Psychology Intelligence

Intelligence In my high trail your wisdom direct is based on your competency to master material in knotty courses, which is quite different to large number the equivalent succession in the amazon rain forest. Their cognition level is based on their knowledge of the medicinal properties of local plants. In both of these very different locations information is the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. popular news program is also known as the g factor. To be designate as intelligent would corre upstart with a high g factor.There argon also the theories of binary intelligences, which imply Gardners eight intelligences and Sternbergs three intelligences. Gardners eight intelligences involve abilities in linguistics, logical-mathematics, music, spatial aw beness, body-kin esthetics, interpersonal relations, interpersonal relations, and nature. Gardner views intelligence as multiple abilities that come in different packages. For example, in the exercises of people with Savant Syndrome who ofttimes score low on intelligence testifying, yet generate champion argona of intense brilliance, such as the Rain Man.Sternbergs three intelligences complicate Analytical(academic problem-solving), Creative intelligence, and Practical intelligence. Analytical intelligence is assessed by intelligence testing, with gesture having only one correct answer. Creative intelligence is shown by how people react to new situations and create new ideas. Practical intelligence is postulate for every day problem-solving, with problems having many an(prenominal) possible answers. Creativity is the ability to gravel ideas that argon both novel and valuable. Exceptionally high advance on intelligence tests support the presence of high creativity.Sternberg identified five components of creativity, which include Expertise(well veritable knowledge base), Imaginative thinking skills, A venturesome personality, nati ve motivation, and a germinal environment. To boost your creativity it is best to develop your seriousise by finding something that you are passionate about and become an expert on it. Next, you ingest to allow time for incubation, which means, give your mind fortune of time and rest to make connections with the wealth of knowledge you have heart-to-heart yourself to. Then, you need to set aside time to let your mind redact freely.That means television, computers, and video games are off the table. Instead, go for a walk, jog, or meditate. Lastly and most importantly, experience other cultures and ways of thinking. Travel to many different countries and soak up the culture through common activities and calibre time spent with native peoples. Emotional intelligence has four of import components, which include, perceiving emotions(to recognize them in faces, music, and stories), understanding emotions(to name them and how they change and blend), managing emotions(to know how t o stock them in varied situations), and using emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking.Those who are emotionally intelligent are often to a greater extent fortunate in careers, marriage, and parenting situations, as compared to academically smart people. It is be roostved that in that location is a hygienic correlational statistics between brain size and intelligence. For example, Lord Byrons brain was rough deuce pounds heavier than the normal three pound brain. In another case Albert Einsteins brain was studied and was found to be 15% larger in the parietal lobes lower region, which is the area for mathematical and spatial do working. How fitting some other strong correlation lies between neural processing speed and intelligence. This correlation is the result of one of two possibilities. Perhaps people who process more quickly accumulate more information, or processing speed and intelligence share an underlying genetic influence. How is intelligence determined, and then presumption a numerical value? Tests are made by psychologists, and what makes the tests themselves presumptive? The whole idea of testing intelligence came about around the same time that France made it mandatory for children to attend school.To know what children needed supernumerary schooling, a test to determine mental age was created by Binet. psychogenic age is the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance, typically associated with a certain chronological age. For example, an average septette year old would have a mental age of seven, but if a seven year old is above average he/she may have a mental age of eight or above. The test created to determine mental age is referred to today as the Stanford-Binet, it is the American revision of the original intelligence test.Using the mental age a persons intelligence quotient(I. Q. ) can be determined. I. Q. Is the ratio of mental age to chronological age all multiplied by 100. There are two important types of modern tests to test mental abilities, and they are achievement tests and aptitude tests. skill tests are designed to assess what a person has learned. Examples of achievement tests include course exams, intelligence tests, and drivers license exams. Aptitude tests are designed to predict a persons future performance aptitude is the capacity to learn.Examples of aptitude tests are the S. A. T. and the A. C. T. What are the principles of intelligence test construction? To understand this we first need to understand standardization and the normal curve. Standardization is defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group. The normal curve is the cruciform bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. roughly scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes. Next, we need to understand reliability and validity.It is very important to have rel iability in standardized testing. Reliability is the extent to which a test gives consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting. High reliability does not promise a tests validity. Validity is the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. What are dynamics of human intelligence? They are about the stability over the life span of a person, and about the extremes of intelligence. As you age your intelligence can either increase or decrease, as it is all in your power.Intelligence in correlation with aging comes in three stages Phase I Cross-Sectional differentiate for intellectual step- experience, Phase II Longitudinal Evidence for Intellectual Stability, and Phase III It all Depends. Phase I concludes that the decline of mental ability with age is part of the general aging process of the organism as a whole. Phase II cerebrate that until late in life, intelligence remained stable, sometimes even increasing. For example, John Rock developed the birth control pill at age 70, and Frank Lloyd Wright designed N. Y. C. s Guggenheim Museum at age 89Phase III concluded a persons crystallized intelligence increases until you die, but a persons fluid intelligence decreases beginning shortly afterwards the twenties and very rapidly after age 85. The correlation between intelligence and age all comes down to phase III it really does all depend In conclusion, there are many factors when find the levels of intelligence of human beings. Some of them are creativity, emotional intelligence, testing methods, age, and many more. Whether you are an American high school student, or a teenager in the Amazon rainforest determining intelligence is very much the same.

History of Goods and Service Tax in Malaysia Essay

1. Introduction of GST Goods and service measure were first deliberated in 2005 with the intention to introducing it in 1st January 2007. How ever so, it was withdrawn in the following year. In 2009, GST was revived with a proposed rate of 4% to replace current sales impose of 10% and assist Tax of 5% in a bid to diversify home(a) assesss. However, the idea of GST all the same end up floating around as it has now been officially deferred.2. Concept of GSTGoods and helping Tax (GST), also known as Value Added Tax ( bathing tub), is a wide-cut consumption measure. The purpose of the approach of GST is to spread the burden which borne by contractr in some grouchy areas into a wide range of goods and work with a lower valuate rate. Thus, organisations value income experience bug out eventually increase to en qualified the elevate knowledge and budget obtain to the untaught, other than just relying on petroleum and income tax revenues.GST is a multi-stage tax a s it is levied on the value added created at the various stages in the significationproductiondistri neverthelession chain of the product to which the tax is applicable. This tax building helps to avoid the cascading effect embedded in current Sales Tax and Service Tax (SST) which are single-stage tax.It adopts a credit offset instrumental role whereby tax charged on supplies (called output tax) make by a taxable business may be net off against tax paid on enters (called input tax) to production. Only the discrimination is remitted to the tax authority. Nevertheless, the follow of GST is actually borne by final customers. However, non all supplies are modular rated supply, which are subject to proposed rate of 4%.Malaysian organisation has announce that some 40 items, closelyly requirement consumables and commodities testament be stark of GST, that is, either the items are exempted or addicted a aught-rating. The further discrepancy is that input tax credits muc kle be claimed by registered suppliers of zero rated supplies but not the exempted suppliers. Thus, lower income groups are protect.Further more than, GST is a form of verificatory tax as it is not a statutory obligation of a person to pay the tax unless certain GST taxable goods and go are consumed.Besides, the Malaysian judicature has indicated that Mandatory GST registration for suppliers will be ground on a threshold of sales. Current indications are that the threshold will be set at RM500, 000.00 per year.Thus, with the introduction of GST, government is able to bring up the reliance on direct tax to indirect tax for sources of revenue income to maintain its competitiveness as well as sustain semipermanent growth of the country.3. Fate of GST in MalaysiaThe passage of GST in Malaysia has not been an clean sailing. As mentioned above, the idea of GST was first announced in 2005. However, it was shelved in 2006. Again, later the GST bill tabled in 2009, the second and thi rd reading for GST is now be deferred again.Over-reliance on the direct tax and depleting petroleum are actually the study concern of government that contributes to the imposition of GST. Furthermore, the government is of the opinion that Sales and Service Tax (SST) has reached its threshold. To increase it the countrys exports uncompetitive. Under SST, exporters were incurring as much as RM1.4 billion e really year. Therefore, the only way is to institute GST. GST is considered an frank and comprehensive system of taxation that minimizes evasion and figures a broader revenue stream.3.1 Judgments from Macro-economic flavorBy replacing the Sales and Service Tax with GST, the government is able to diversifies its sources of taxation to avoid being dependent on any particular tax base and the stability of tax revenue is ensured. As revenue from imports and taxes from the bodily sector may fluctuate, GST will not fluctuate, in that locationby meditate in a steady and sustaina ble revenue stream that is topically generated.However, the immediate outcry is that GST will intellect the general hurt take aim goes up. However, empirical study in China indicates that GST effectuation did not cause any inflation. Furthermore, domain do not have to be over-worried of the around-the-clock inflation as recent research also point out that GST may bring about a one- sequence increase in embody of living, but the impact on inflation is low. Meanwhile, according to the Ministry of Finance, Consumer Price great power is distinguish to reduce 0.1% due to the lower GST rate. This toilette be further supported by studies that indicate prices did not increase significantly ahead and after the introduction of GST. Thereby it is clear that imposition of GST will only cause one time increase in general prices but would not necessarily lead to inflation which is continuous increase in the average of price over the time. Furthermore, a study do by Malaysian governme nt also shows that households could enjoy annual savings of in the midst of RM14.50 and RM347 downstairs SST system and GST system respectively.Additionally, it is indicated that the business sector could expect innate annual savings of some RM4billion under the GST regime, while exporters would save RM1.4billion annually under a zero-rate system. Also, GST improve export competitiveness due to zero-rated and salary increase tourism because of the refund of GST.However, recent study argues that Malaysia can enjoy this peck competitive advantages only when there is no delay in input tax refund that cause increase in price of exports.Furthermore, there are many arguments against the indirect tax reform in evolution countries. A country like Malaysia with strawman of a substantial free sector, substituting VAT for border taxes is likely to deter the growth and development of the economy as a whole as VAT dexterity drives firms from the formal sector into the shadow of easy e conomy. Many studies have indicated that maturation countries consists of a very queen-sized size of informal economy. Informal economy is defined as the segment of the economy that escapes the tax net it olibanum includes both the shadow economy and agriculture. Also, they argue that the imposition of VAT may also retard the development of markets, especially in the rural areas.As mentioned, imposition of GST diversifies governments revenue sources and increase income. However, a anterior study of GST in Mexico indicated that tax revenue increase might not be as large as suggested by standard humankindations due to the increase of the informal sector, shrinking the tax base. Furthermore, as a developing country, Malaysia may not benefit from the implementing GST due to the high administrative costs.Meanwhile, as GST was deferred, road shows, seminars and public education campaign are still being held by the government ever since the first announcement of GST in order to crea te awareness amongst the public about the oncoming tax transition. On the contrary, in the same time, GST opponents have been expressing negative by scratch line an anti-GST task force to protests against the implementation. Sentiment is that Malaysia is ranked more corrupt than ever and people are cynical that imposing GST will only be another avenue for corruption.From the discussion above, it can be seen that imposition of GST can improve collection of revenue in a more comprehensive, see-through and effective manner. Furthermore, more savings for households and somatic sectors can be pass judgment with the substitution of SST with GST.Government has been paying effort in educating the public, however, hesitated in implementing the GST several(prenominal) times because of the lack of infrastructure to effectively collect the taxes. Furthermore, Malaysia is currently in a developing stage. There are still many informal sectors like agriculture sector and goods that are exempte d from this system. Besides, the corruption issues in the country have yet to be ploughed. It seems that the government needs more time to get ready for the implementation of GST and, thus GST might be employ later sort of than sooner.3.2 Judgments from Micro-economic aspect(i) Corporate aspectGST is tax put in on behalf of government. Given the claimable input tax feature, GST is deemed not to be a business cost. However, GST will place a burden on the merged sector (especially Small and Medium Enterprises), which will be responsible for hive away the new tax. SMEs may face the problem of cash flow hindrance due to the payment of GST upfront. Also the employment of qualified internal supply with the necessary experience can be quite costly. To add on to the problem, software programs would need to be revised to take into account the GST component hence adding on to the cost of operating a business. As come together by studies, the obligingness cost of SMEs is substantial ly higher than larger firms. Thus, GST compliancy is four times more regressive to SMEs as compared to large firms.Again, representatives of the somatic sector have already expressed fears that corruption and bureaucratic awkwardness could raise the cost of administering the tax, thereby increasing companies operating costs.Furthermore, with regards to the threshold leap, descry done by The Associated Chinese Chambers of Commerce & attention of Malaysia (ACCIM) ,with a small samples of 2000 people, has indicated that a threshold of RM5 million above is the virtually hireable level instead of RM500,000. Extra compliance cost has a very high possibility of causing them to have substantial add up of revenue forgone. Even the neighbor country of Malaysia, Singapore, has a threshold limit of SGD$1 million. Shockingly, 80% of the respondents indicated that their computer systems are not ready to cater for the administration of GST.All of the reasons above clearly show that GS T compliance is a very big issue to the incarnate sectors, especially SMEs. High compliance costs that will be incurred for new software purchasing, staff education and low threshold limit have make them react very negatively towards the proposed GST. Thereby, it takes time for government to allay the fear of the corporate sectors and address the compliance cost issue. Thus, GST might be implemented later or else than sooner.(ii) Individual aspectPublic are very reluctant to accept the implementation of GST. Some of them even formed a group representing the public to protest and express their non-approval for the introduction of the proposed GST with the contention of GST will feed the well-heeled and starve the poor. Also, they are worried that those unscrupulous traders might take advantage of the GST to unnecessarily increase prices and pass this down to the final consumer.Actually, government has been spending time creating public awareness about the GST. However, the effort does not seem to be enough that most of the people do not actually realize that the lower income groups are protected as most of the basic necessities are actually zero-rated and tax exempted. Consumers have a weft to a certain extent whether to pay the tax should they decide to consume any of the non-essential goods and services.When it comes to exempting basic essentials from GST, however, there are arguments against list for political popularity. This is because besides many exemptions can nullify the purpose of GST as a broad revenue base.Again, the bureaucratic culture in Malaysia further erodes the confidence of public towards GST.To sum up all the reasons above, given political sensitivity of the GST and the difficultness of controlling the reactions of the public and the corporate sector, the government might want to ensure that there is a long gap in between for the introduction of GST even though GST can be beneficial to the country. Besides, the Malaysian government needs time to establish computerization system and trained force play for the tax transition.However, the budget deficit and depleting natural resources leave the federal government with little choice. Furthermore, the authorities has stressed that SST has reached its threshold, GST is the best option for the tax reform. Thus, given the reasons above and efforts of government create public awareness of GST, it might seen that GST is already in the pipeline and the current deferment was actually to allow the authorities to have more public awareness program and to give the corporate sector more time to get ready for the tax transition.4. rightfulness of GSTAs indicated by government, GST provides equitable treatments as lower income groups are protected by zero-rated and exempted mechanisms. This method has been argued as simplistic as it ignores a quash of important facts.First, empirical research indicates that there are significant difference in the pattern of expenditure betwee n the poor and rich. Engels integrity point out that the share of expenditure on food and habilitate is very high for the poorest households. According to the estimates of Hossain, VAT can be made less regressive with zero-rating of commodities that are consumed more by the poor households. Zero-rating basic-commodities protect the poor and also the rich, since they also buy these commodities. In other words, zero-rating is an high-ticket(prenominal) way of protecting the poor since much of the protection is wasted on the rich.Second, the case for imposing VAT as has long been known a uniform VAT is likely to increase the price of many goods essential to the poor (Ahmad Stern 1987). Research on Bangladesh shows that a uniform VAT that disregards the differences in expenditure spending of the rich and the poor is significantly regressive as the poor suffer 2 to 3.5 percent loss in their income while the rich benefits from such(prenominal) reform. Because the poor may consume a rel atively small amount of such products, it is undoubtly true that much of the benefits of such exemptions will go to the non-poor.Third, before the introduction of GST, the price of all commodities in fact has already incorporated an indirect tax component that is the tax charged on inputs for production. Therefore, no commodities will increase in price to the full extent of GST.Moreover, proponents of the tax reform have omit the presence of a large informal economy in Malaysia. According to Emran and Stiglitz, the dramatic shift in favor of VAT as the main instrument for revenue rising in developing countries which have a large informal sector is misguided both on efficiency and beauteousness grounds. Even a uniform broad-based VAT may be more progressive than more nominally progressive taxes (such as the personal income tax) that in practice burden only a limited group of wage-earners. This can be happen, for instance, informal sector producers that produce a close backup man of the formal GST-liable commodity will get high profit without military capability tax while formal sector producer may get lower profit and bearing tax. Therefore, informal sectors of a Malaysia might strain the equity treatment of GST amongst the corporate sectors. A further consequence is that the tax base of the GST is eroded and either less revenue is available for national expenditure priorities, or higher rate of GST is required.Thus, the equity of GST still carcass a question. The actual impact of a broad-based GST needs to be estimated by econometric model in order to answer the major arguments of broad-based GST.4. closedownGST has been proposed by government to reduce the reliance on direct tax and the petroleum revenue. Also, it was planned to replace current SST. With a broader base for goods and services being subject to GST, the revenue for the government is expected to be higher. However, the implementation GST is being deferred again due to the political sensit ivity and the negative reaction of the public. Furthermore, the lacking of infrastructure to effectively collect the taxes, negative responses by the corporate sectors and protests against GST by the public contributes further to the deferment of GST.However, it does not mean GST going to be shelved forever as Deputy Director of Customs, Subromaniam Tholasy, has made a clear statement that the implementation of GST has only been deferred, not cancelled. Also, the officials have been piercing to stress that both consumers and businesses are likely to make savings under the GST. Thus, it is obvious that the GST already is in the pipeline. However, many things have to be done for the imposition of GST, thus GST might be implemented later rather than sooner due to the substantial time and cost incurred by the corporate sector and government in the preparation for the transition. Also, equity of GST still dust an issue.In order to make the implementation of GST to be successful, the go vernment should detonate an extensive education and public awareness drive now to excuse how the tax works and its impact on prices. Also, the government should address its major problem which is corruption to regain the confidence of public. Also, they has to take into consideration of the neglected factors such as informal sector and reconsider the equity issue in order to make the implementation of GST to be equitable and efficient.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Mergers and Acquisitions: American Airlines Merges With Rival US Airways Essay

Successful corporations in business be always seeking different ways to improve their position in their respective areas of operation. Mergers and acquisitions have been prove to be a way to do just that. A jointure is simply defined as cardinal companies joining to make a unsanded party, whereas an acquisition occurs when bingle companion outright purchases another corporation. Mergers and Acquisitions are considered as the important growth schema for companies to satisfy the increasing demands of various stakeholders (Krishnamurti and Vishwanath, 2010).Why Merge?AMR Corporation, the parent guild of American air ducts, announced plans to merge with US Airways Group in February, 2013. This came afterwards the corporation had previously filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in November 2011. (Isidore, Chris) The resulting unification created the cosmicst air ductr in the world. The companies offici wholey formed the new American Airlines Group Inc. on December 9, 2013. (Air Transport World, Jan 2014) Doug Parker, previously the chief operating officer of US Airways, and now CEO of the new American, stated We are taking the best of both US Airways and American Airlines to create a formidable competitor, better positioned to deliver for all of our stake holders. We look forward to integrating our companies quickly and efficiently so the significant benefits of the jointure can be realized. (Air Transport World, Jan 2014)That statement proves that the fusion was formed for two reasons property, and power. Both companies were losing in the passenger air exile field to other companies that had of late merged. Merging would allow both companies to fatten out their resources and add routes and terminals together that were previously reserved to severally individually previous to the combination. US Airways brings access to smaller US cities, whereas American Airlines has a big(a) presence internationally, particularly London and Latin A merica (What the American Airlines/US Airways Merger Will Mean for You, 2013). American Airlines showed the want and assume for money after it almost collapsed in bankruptcy. The conjugation of the two corporations was an ex deoxyadenosine monophosphatele of a horizontal integration. This is defined by as a coalition or acquisition of additional business activities on the same level of the nurse chain in similar or different industries, and can be achieved by internal or external expansion.The airline industry has departd drastically over the past decade with coalitions of almost every major airline Delta & northwesterly United & Continental and Southwest & AirTran. These mergers created a new landscape in which the tables were tilted against both US Airways and American Airlines. It was a necessity that the two join forces in couch to stay be competitive and stay afloat against the other recently formed mega-airlines. Those mergers also created an opportunity for tax revenue growth in the fine pricing arena. The price of a domestic round-trip ticket prices has climbed nearly 15% since 2009 due to inflation. The merger forget break down American and US Airways the energy to increase fares with the addition of both companies pre-existing routes and terminals.What were the significant effects of the merger?In methodicalness to be a success, a merger essential provide all parties involved some significant increase in benefit. This merger is not exempt from that statement. (2013) states that a key reason for the merger between American and US Airways is to link both airlines net employs, creating a transcription on par with Delta Air Lines and United. The combination of the two results in more than than 6,700 daily flights to 336 destinations in 56 countries. This network will allow passengers to fly sheet around the world without the need to make the often exhausting connections that they were subjected to pre-merger. The merger also created an instant increase in stock prices. Shares of the combined association rose 2.7%. This in itself is a good start for a company in the post-bankruptcy period. The restructuring and merging will re reconcile AMRs creditors with interest and generate its sums and common holders a large share of equity in the new company. (Susan Carey & Jack Nicas, 2013)Resulting organizational Structure of the Post-Merger Company By corporate trust two previously fully operational companies, the organizational structure will be more complex, at the least, than it was forwards. As a result of the merger, American Airlines Group, Inc. now has combined workforce of 110,000 people along-side a fleet of 1,511 aircraft (Bohemer, 2013). Organizing much(prenominal) a large workforce creates a challenge that requires a draw capable of handling that task. The company is now lead by antique Executive Officer W. Douglas Parker, the former CEO and chairman of US Airways. Parker has proven leadership ability, presiding over the merger of US Airways and America West Airlines in 2005. He also oversaw the company during a time of record revenue growth and change magnitude profit margins. Out firing CEO Tom Horton was in that position from 2011 through 2013, leading the company through the merger before handing the reins over to Parker.Parker appears to have an edge on leading and team building, having going through an airline merger previously. His ability to increase profit and company wealth makes him the obvious choice to lead the new corporation. Although the merger has die final, the two companies will still operate as separate entities for the predictable future. This will allow the companies more time to put together the large structure and make proper decisions to ensure for smooth operations in the future. They benefit from not being the first airlines of their sizes to make this transition, as the mergers of Delta and Northwest and United and Continental have sort of created a path of what need to be done in order to be a winning merger. The structure combined employees from both airlines, which builds unity and shows that the company is committed to contemptible forward together, not just to come in and take over.This is a good technique that more companies should adopt. Along with the physical structure change of the new American Airlines Group, there will also be changes that imply the consumers. Frequent Flyer miles will be able to be use interchangeably with either American Airlines or US Airways flights. Customers will be allowed to accrue mileage from either airlines. (n.d.) lists several benefits that AAdvantage members will be afforded with US Airlines, and vice versa. There are also gate changes that affect customers and employees, as seen with the closing of US Airways Pittsburgh Terminal. In an interview with the Pittsburgh Post Gazette, Spokesman Todd Lehmacher said US Airways says most of the 600 employees at the Pittsburgh center will be given the filling to relocate to Texas, though it acknowledged it doesnt expect all of them to do so. Those who chose not to go will be given a breach package.(Mutzabaugh, 2014) Having lived in the Pittsburgh area for years, actually within a few miles of the airport, I know that the pullback will greatly affect the local economy. gentlemans gentleman Resources Management PracticesAnytime you combine two separate companies into one, there will be differences to iron out. Corporate culture will undoubtedly be one of the many Human resource challenges that the merger will have to overcome. Organizational cultural differences have been negatively associated with various accounting measures and stock marketplace value following domestic M&As. (Webber & Drori, 2011) being that the companies have similar duties and responsibilities, it should not be too difficult to work through these issues. There may be past practi ces at each company that will have to be adjusted in order to make the transition smooth. Merging also presented the opportunity to increase employee pay and benefits packages, which would be in line with the other large airlines. With the expected increased revenue, there would be more funds to share amongst the employees and shareholders. In shadower the scenes meetings, Parker secretly negotiated deals with Americans three main unions, creating provisional contracts that would give Americans workers far better pay and work rules. (Tully, 2013) These negotiations gave the unions reason to buy into and promote the merger.ConclusionWhile the merger between these two airline giants did not go without hiccup, they were in a better position to make the transition due to a need to by American Airlines and a want to by US Airways. American appears to be the winner of the merger by coming out of bankruptcy, maintaining their company, and expanding their routes and terminals. The merger w as finalized on December 9, 2013ReferencesKrishnamurti, C., & Vishwanath, S. R. (2010). Mergers, Acquisitions, and Corporate Restructuring. South Asian diary of Management, 17(2), 169-171. American Airlines, US Airways close merger to create worlds largestairline. (2014). Air Transport World, 51(1), 8. Boehmer, J. (2013). Merger Planning Underway As American, US Airways Embark On Long Journey. Business Travel News, 30(7), 28. What the American Airlines/US Airways Merger Will Mean For You. (2013, November 12). Daily Finance. Retrieved from http// American Airlines, US Airways Complete Merger (2013.). The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http// W. Douglas Parker. (n.d.). US Airways. Retrieved from http// Weber, Y., & Drori, I. (2011). Integrating Organizational and Human Behavior Perspectives on Mergers and Acquisitions. supranational Studies of Management & Organization, 41(3), 76-95. Tully, S. (2013, March 18). Inside the Worlds Biggest Airline Merger. Fortune, 167, 169.

Monday, January 21, 2019

Counterfactual Thinking Essay

The bring of repent arguably relies on a multifaceted, contrary to fact analysis of both antecedently possible consequences. An important suspicion to consider is at what age these conditional emotions develop, and what en equals these responses to occur. Previous explore proposes that wo emerges at roughly 4 historic period sexagenarian, marginally previous than more than recent studies conducted by Guttentag and Ferrell, who suggest that the experience of ruefulness occurs relatively lately in babe discipline. The results of these studies argue that pinch, rather than simply experiencing conditional emotions relies heavily on a childs expertness to simultaneously conceive permutation realities, and that a recognition of differing outcomes is a necessary, rather than sufficient component of the development of ruefulness. These findings compose and extend previous research, and demonstrate that the development of contrary to fact view in children is posit ively correlated with a hard cognitive processing of both alternate realities.The experience of mourning and relief atomic number 18 conditional emotions found on a comparison of human beings with a better, alternating(a) situation. counterfactual emotions are considered to perform important emotional regulatory functions, and require surplus complex cognitive processing than more basic emotions such as anger, fear or happiness. They require us to consider dual possibilities (Byrne, 2002) in which both outcomes were possible at some point in the past. The ability to experience emotions such as regret is believed to play an important post in decision-making following the effect into adulthood. Significant differences however, comprise between when children are thought to first experience regret.It is arguable that childrens ground of regret develops relatively late due to the complex nature of not exclusively hold oning counterfactual thinking (Guttentag and Ferre ll, 2004), which requires an identification and comparison of two evenly possible, alternate actions. If children are unable to feed these comparisons, they are unable to experience the emotion of regret. Little research has been done on the cognitive processes rat the way out of regret in upstart children, and thus many capitulums still exist as to why the experience of counterfactual thinking develops relatively late in childhood. Many inconsistencies exist in the supposed understandings of regret, and subsequently set ahead research is required in order to overcome these age-related discrepancies.counterfactual thinking refers to an ability to think rough what could have been had an alternative decision been yield or had the outcome been different (Roese, 1991). It is within the intriguing paradigm that the current research into the experience of regret takes place. Recent findings have shed raise light into the development of regret during the archaean years of chi ldhood. Beck et al (2006) proposed the theoretical perspective that counterfactual emotions develop relatively late because it requires more complex cognitive processing to conceive two possible outcomes, as remote to recognizing basic emotions of happiness and sadness. This perspective is widely agreed upon, however theories differ in the age at which the emotion of regret actually emerges. Daniel Weisberg (2001) dictated the emergence of regret at or so 4 years, however Guttentag and Ferrell (2004) speculated that it was not until children are 6 or 7 years old that they are able to simultaneously cut through counterfactual and actual situations. Further research however, has revealed that within the emergence of counterfactual thinking, is a distinction between experiencing and reason about regret.The latter involves a reflection on the reasoning behind the emotion, i.e. _why_ does the child feel bad that he/she picked box A mastering nothing, when he/she could have picked b ox B, containing the chocolate. Experiencing regret however, involves a comparison of domain with a better, alternative outcome. Given that it is a difficult task to simultaneously comprehend two equally plausible realities, it must(prenominal) be dismantle more difficult to understanding the reasoning behind _why_ this feels bad. Interestingly, although Guttentag and Ferrell (2004) located the experience of regret first in childhood, they argued that it wasnt until later in bearing around 7 years old that a child was able to demonstrate _why_ an alternative reality might affect the emotional reception to the actual outcome. Guttentag and Ferrell (2004) suggested that children less than 5 or 6 years old cannot generate a comparison between a real and counterfactual reality. According to this perspective, the comparison between two previously possible outcomes is particular. In 2009, Beck and Crilly adapted this theory, and hypothesized that an inability to compare the t wo worlds limits childrens thinking about regret. (Beck, & vitamin A Crilly 2009).Beck, Robinson, Carroll and Apperly (2006) proposed a similar perspective, arguing that it wasnt until children were 5 or 6 years old that counterfactual and actual events were two equally plausible events. Studies conducted following this proposal revealed corresponding results. Children between the ages of 3 and 6 were asked an open and a closed question regarding the pathway chosen by a toy mouse. Children vulcanised 3 found it difficult to justly answer the question what if he had gone the other way, where would he be? as opposed to the saucer-eyedr could he have gone anywhere else? Comparatively, children aged 6 and older performed significantly better, with 85% answering the open question correctly. Beck et al reasoned that regret could not be felt if the child had no understanding of the possibility of a counterfactual reality successor the actual reality. In 2009, Beck and Crilly replicated these studies, but alternatively used an open question and a regret question to measure childrens ability to comprehend regret.The results indicated that, contrary to Beck et al, it is in fact not sufficient to simply do it two counterfactual possibilities in order for children to recognize regret. The study gave more weight to Guttentag and Ferrells 2004 claim that the comparison of two alternate realities is critical in the development of regret. Beck and Crilly (2009) went on to suggest that perhaps understanding two counterfactual realities was a necessary rather than sufficient developmental remnant in the cognitive processing of regret. In 2003, German and Nichols proposed that the experience of counterfactual thinking could occur as early as 4 years of age. In their study, a group of 3 year olds were given stories that problematical two possible outcomes. When given the negative alternative, the children were asked whether the character in the storey would feel happy or sad. German and Nichols reported that children answered more than two thirds of the simple counterfactual questions correctly.This data was used to theorize that children as young as 3 could comprehend basic counterfactual realities, and thus indicated the early emergence of regret. Although much discrepancy exists as the to the exact age at which regret begins to emerge, the view that counterfactual thinking develops much earlier than previously thought has become widely accepted amongst both cognitive and developmental psychologists. However, evidence exists that contradicts this perspective. Beck et al argue that the studies used by German and Nichols contain a number of false positives.Further research has suggested that the supposed counterfactual thinking demonstrated in the 3 year olds tested, could simply be use of the childs general knowledge, and that the questions used were too simple to reliably indicate an experience of regret. Questions used in the experiment by Ger man and Nichols arguably lead to answers that could be answered using the childs general knowledge, such as recognizing that squashed flowers make people unhappy, and unsquashed flowers make people happy (Beck, Robison, Carroll, &type A Apperly 2006). Where German and Nichols may have revealed an emergence of counterfactual thinking may simply have been the childs expression of past experience.The most widely agreed upon theory of regret in childhood appears to be ability to not only deal two previously possible realities, but to likewise compare them in order to come to an emotional understanding. Theorists including Guttentag and Ferrell (2004), and Beck and Crilly (2009) argue that a distinction must be made between simply experiencing a counterfactual emotion, and understanding _why_ someone may feel unhappy when comparing the actual reality with a counterfactual world. This theory is based on the premise that counterfactual thinking is a complex cognitive process, requiring a multifaceted understanding of two dual possibilities.Research on counterfactual thinking in childhood also suggests children may experience regret as early as 4 years old, however this view has generated much review and requires further research in order to rule out experimental limitations, such as small research groups and over generalized questions. rising research may focus on overcoming these limitations in order to generate reliable data. Compiling the findings from these and future studies will enable researchers to form a much clearer of picture of exactly when children not only experience, but also understand the emotion of regret, and what cognitive processes underpin this development. In conclusion, research examining childrens regret has focused on the criticality of the moment children begin to comprehend two dual realities, and feel remorse after choosing one outcome over another. Current studies lend weight to the complex nature of the percentage of cognition in emotional experiences, and this data, taken in conjunction with earlier studies, suggests a number of age-related stepping stones are implicated in the development of counterfactual thinking.REFERENCE LISTBeck, R. S., & Crilly, M. (2009) Is understanding regret dependent on developments in counterfactual thinking? _British Journal of Developmental Psychology_. 27, 505-510.Beck, R. S., Riggs, J. K., & Burns, P. (2001) double developments in counterfactual thinking. _Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation_. 2-21.Beck, S. R., Riggs, J. K., & Gorniak, L. S. (2009) The effect of casual length on counterfactual conditioning reasoning. _British Journal of Developmental Psychology_. Doi 10.1348/026151009X450836.Beck, S. R., Robinson, E. J., Carroll, D. J., & Apperly, I. A. (2006) Childrens thinking about counterfactuals and future hypotheticals as possibilities. _Child Development._ 77, 413-426.Burns, P., Riggs, J. K., & Beck, R. S. (2012) administrator control and theexperience of regret. _Journal of Experimental Child Psychology_. 111(3), 501-515. Doi 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.10.003.Brocki, K. C., & Bohlin, G. (2004) decision maker functions in children aged 6-13 A dimensional and developmental study. _Developmental Neuropsychology_. 26, 571-593.Diamond, A. (2006) The early development of executive functions. _Lifespan Cognition Mechanisms of Change_, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. 70-95.Ferrel, J. M., Guttentag, R. E., Gredlein, J. M. (2009) Childrens understanding of counterfactual emotions Age differences, unmarried differences, and the effects of counterfactual-information salience. _British Journal of Developmental Psychology_. 27, 569-585.Guttentag, R. E., Ferrell, J. (2004) Reality compared with its alternatives Age differences in judgments of regret and relief. _Developmental Psychology_. 40, 764-775.Mitchell, P., Riggs, K. J. (2000) Childrens reasoning and the mind. _Psychology Press_. 121-147.OConnor, E. (2011) T he emergence of regret in childhood. _Pediatrics for Parents_. 27, 11-12.OConnor, E., McCormack, T., & Feeney, A. (2012). The development of regret. _Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,_ 111, 120-127. Doi 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.07.002.Roese, N. J. (1997) Counterfactaul thinking. _Psychological Bulletin_. 121, 133-148.Rafetseder, E., & Perner, J. (2011) When the alternative would have been better Counterfactual reasoning and the emergence of regret. _Cognition and Emotion_, 26, 800-819.Rafetseder, E., Schwitalla, M., & Perner, J. (2012) Counterfactual reasoning From childhood to adulthood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 114(3), 389-404. Doi 10.1016/j.jecp.2012.10.010.Weisberg, D. P. (2011) Childrens thinking about regret and relief. _University of Birmingham (thesis)_. 56-83.Weisberg, D. P., & Beck, S. R. (2010) Childrens thinking about their own and others regret and relief. _Journal of Experimental Child Psychology_. 106, 184-191.Weisberg, D. P., & Beck , S. R. (2011) The development of childrens regret and relief. _Cognition and Emotion._ 26, 820-835.Van Duijvenvoorder, K. C. A., Hulzenga, M. H., & Jansen, R. J. (2013) What is and what could have been Experiencing regret and relief across childhood. _Cognition and Emotion_, 28, 926-935.Zeelenberg, M., Van Dkik, W. W., Manstead, A. S. R., & van der Pligt, J. (1998) The experience of regret and disappointment. _Cognition and Emotion_, 12, 221-230.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Biological Criminal Behavior Essay

Biology contributes to killers. As good bridge player in todays society, we ar constantly being bombarded with the fed up(p) actions that mankind is capable of. We watch the news and hear about murders, or even read a book about a hidden killer. As we go through these pieces of reality, one cant back up but be struck by the thoughtwhat causes a someone to act so uncultivatedly? There get down been umteen studies make to try and find an answer. For a crime such as sequential kill, there be two thoughts. The first idea is that sequential killing is caused by an ab figureity in the frontal lobe of the brain. The second idea is that serial killers are bred by circumstance which means they have certain genes in addition known as the negative gene that makes them prone to bonnie a killer. Ted Bundy was a serial killer who had confessed to more than 30 killings but many lot believe that the number was actually closer to 100 (, 2013).For the well-nigh part, Te d Bundy had a somewhat normal besides a few bumps in the road. Theodore Robert Cowell more commonly known as Ted Bundy was natural on November 24th, 1946 to Eleanor Louise Cowell (The Predator, n.d.). Because Ted was born out of wedlock, his bring forth had her parents act like they were Teds biological parents. Eleanor Cowell because acted as if she were Teds sister. However, there are speculations that Ted was conceived out of an incestuous family between Eleanor and her father (The Predator, n.d.). These speculations have never been proven though. When Ted was about quaternion years old, his sister, Eleanor and him moved to Washington State where Eleanor married Johnnie Bundy. Ted Bundy had a fairly close relationship to his grandfather/father even though the grandfather suffered from some anger issues. However, there were non any forms of hatred ever reported (The Predator, n.d.). As a teenager, Bundy began spying on women in his neighborhood as well as breaking in to pa cks homes in order to acquire valuables (The Ted Bundy Website, n.d.).In 1966, while tending the University of Washington, Bundy met a woman by the name of Stephanie Brooks and he fierce in love with her but their love was not meant to be. In 1968, Stephanie and Ted bust up and consequently, many if not all of Bundys victims resembled Stephanie Brooks (The Predator, n.d.). In 1969, while Ted was in the state of Vermont (where he was born) he found that whom he thought was his sister for so many years was actually his mother (The Predator, n.d.). For most people, the realization of this would probably destroy them mentally, but for Bundy it seemed to have small-scale to no effect (The Predator, n.d.).Around 1974 is when Bundy began slaying innocent women and it was not until 1978 when he was finally arrested for the last time (, 2013). In order to lure his victims in, he would pretend to be injured when a female was passing by and when they came to aide him, he would smash them over the head with a surface pipe or crowbar (, 2013). Bundy was considered to be a sexual motley as well as a necrophiliac (The Ted Bundy Website, n.d.). Bundy often left his victims in his residence until they started to petrify and he was no long-run able to time lag the smell while having sexual intercourse with them.Psychopathic mortals display a multitude of behaviors that make up this disorder and can sometimes be readily detected unless the individual is purposely masking these traits. The psychopathic individual is normally incapable of feeling any guilt, remorse or empathy for their anti-social behaviors. They are manipulative with others to further their own goals or desires. These individuals do know the fight between right and wrong but feel that they are remedy from these judgments. They are also actually poor in such emotions as love and caring (Schmalleger, 2012).People with psychopathic behaviors are very self-involved and n arcissistic because they are unwilling to give up their comfort for the advance of others, their needs always come first. They generally dont turn back from past experiences and tend to repeat the same failed ideas. They have difficulty in following a life plan like most normal people do. Psychopaths dont accept that there are or should be consequences for their anti-social behaviors (Schmalleger, 2012). Many psychopaths have trouble holding down poise employment as they are prone to outbursts of anger at their worksite with slender provocation. They have trouble with interpersonal relationships or grasping team concepts. This leads typically to unsteady finances and difficulty finding new jobs. Romantic relationships are especially difficult to maintain if possible at all.They are very good at seeming to be charming and sincere at times. They learn that their own personalities are lacking so they mimic the personalities of those near them to appear normal and to achieve th eir desires. One of the associated problems with psychopaths is they believe that they can wash up law enforcement officials and will not be caught by them. This may beg off one reason why these individuals commit serial crimes (Schmalleger, 2012). Psychopaths do not have delusions or hear voices others dont hear. They live in the real world and dont talk to imaginary persons. charge modern day advancements in these disorders have not produced methods to successfully cross psychopaths. In fact the treatments meant to help them deal with this disorder can clear them and many have fooled the medical profession that they are indeed making progress toward recovery when in reality they have not changed at all (National Institute of health, 2011). innovative research has indicated that there may be methods of identifying traits in pre-adolescent youth that may be treatable before they are adults. The hold is that if these are diagnosed early before adulthood, they can prevent the an ti-social behaviors from occurring. Once a psychopathic person reaches adulthood treatments are of little or no use. One study suggests that these behaviors are inherited and developed though a childs environment. The study found that about 67% of those youths analyze inherited traits such as extreme callousness and emotional derangement and the environment they grow up in can affect how they deal with these problems (National Institute of health, 2011). Ted Bundy demonstrated various symptoms related to the biological theory of psychology in criminology. Biological theory in crime causation focuses on the human body, evolutionary factors, hormones, inherited genes, and the way the brain has developed (Ministry of Justice, 2009).The mental issues that Ted Bundy possessed are conditioning, psychopath, antisocial personality disorder, and sublimation. The rationale of conditioning for Ted Bundy was the repeat of deadly assaults on young women. The repetition of murders allowed Ted Bundy to perfect his crimes. Psychopath principle consists of someone who has a personality disorder, which transforms into another disorder called anti-social disorder. When Bundy and Stephanie Brooks separated, Bundy was emotionally and mentally destroyed. Anti-social personality disorder is the patterns of disregard for others. Bundy was very antisocial as a child, which later manifested into a sociopath. The principle of sublimation is the process of consciousness on symbolic substitute for another (Schmalleger, 2012 p. 129).Ted Bundy fantasized about young women, and would continue to have sexual intercourse with the deceased corps until the stench was no longer tolerable. In conclusion, serial killers are biologically different then unwavering people. They have lower brain functions and are genetically prone to becoming a serial killer. The identifiable related contributors to the biological theory of criminology connote low serotonin, neurological defects, malnutrition , anti-social behavior, and environmental contributors. Serial killers tend to act upon violent actions due to their abnormal brain waves in their frontal lobe and prefrontal cortex. As everyone can see from this research, serial killers kill not because of their upbringing, but because of biology. This is why they are known by many experts as biological (2013). Ted Bundy. Retrieved fromhttp// Predator. (n.d.). The Predator Ted Bundy. Retrieved fromhttp// Ted Bundy Website. (n.d.). Bundys Childhood. Retrieved fromhttp// Retrieved from http//, F. (2012). Criminology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Prentice Hall.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Corporate governance Essay

IntroductionCorporate governance refers to a system of mostly rules, practices as well as procedures that direct as well as crack a company. In most cases it involves the balancing of completely the stakeholders that stupefy an affaire in the company including the management, sh arholders, government, the community to mention but a hardly a(prenominal) depending on the company. Essentially, incarnate governance provides a framework that if followed will assistance the company attain its objective in an all round manner.though a relatively new phenomenon, this concept has been able to take the cosmos by storm with countries that have embraced it turning in a spread of phylogenesis that their counterparts. The embracing as well as the internalization of incorporated governance by different countries has been able to foster growth and development while creating a business friendly environment in which companies apprize co-exist with the recite as well as the communities in which they operate (Fernando, 2009, p.23). suit of clothes study the United StatesAs recent as 2002, the United States enacted the Sarbanes-Oxley prick into law making it an act. This was ushered in to restore the publics bureau in companies and markets. Prior to this act, there had been a string of bankrupted high write companies that had been brought down by internal accounting fraud. This left a intertwine that ensured that the companies would essentially be governed by state laws and therefore failure due to breach of such(prenominal) laws would be answerable to the government. This ensures that not only are the interests of the company shareholders protected but that wherefore community that usually benefits from activities such as employment are also taken care off. Thus, the solid ground has over years adopted different legislations both at the federal as well as state level that ensure that corporate governance is fully realized in the state.Therefore, from the Unite d States, the UK can reckon to enact strong legislations that would act as a guidelines to both state as well as the companies and any other stakeholders of the importance of embracing corporate governance. This would also serve the purpose of regulating corporations that will then have to acknowledge the fact that rules have been put in tush and therefore have to be followed and that failure of compliance would lead to draw penalties (Chew &type A Gillan, 2009, p. 3).Case study IndiaIndia, unlike the United States, has created a delegation that deals with corporate governance know as the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). The tabular array that in most cases takes on a trustee role for all the companies in India was created through the adoption of SEBI Act, 1992. The act gives the torso statutory powers to be able to carry out its duties and functions. These approach adopted in India is believed to have been adopted from the Ghanaian principle of trusteeship and th at it is a directive of the Indian constitution with a little twist in between. The preamble of the body is to among other functions to protect the interests of investors in securities and to promote the growth (Das, 2008, p. 7).ReferenceChew, D. H., & Gillan, S. L. 2009. U.S. corporate governance. hot York, N.Y., Columbia      University Press.Das, S. C. 2008. Corporate governance in India an evaluation. New Delhi, Prentice-Hall of      India.Fernando, A. C. 2009. Corporate governance principles, policies and practices. New Delhi,     Pearson Education. 

Thursday, January 17, 2019

Carpe Diem Poetry

ENG. 1102 Paper 1 Carpe Diem Poetry To The Virgins, To get at a lot of Time by Robert Herrick and To His modest Mistress by Andrew Marvell argon two great examples of Carpe Diem poetry. Their vivid im mount upry, symbolism, and usage of simile and parable are what appoint these poems memorable. Their usage of these terms likewise makes the poems more inviting and makes the usage of the Carpe Diem tradition more homely. Likely risque for their cartridge holders, I find both poems moderately romantic and tame for our time period.The primary metaphor of To The Virgins, To get in Much Of Time is Gather ye rosebuds while ye may, old time is still a-flying and this selfsame(prenominal) flower that smiles today, tomorrow will be dying(961). This opening metaphor makes it clear that the theme of this poem is Carpe Diem. From my understanding and also from my introductory Latin class Carpe Diem is popularly known as Seize the Day though this is not the literal translation. Ro ses are fresh and supple like youthfulness they are fragile, beautiful, and pure. These are characteristics also associated with virgins. I have found in many literary works that virginity is differentiated to a rose.Herrick is counsel the young to whoop it up their youth before it evades them. The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun, the higher hes a getting, the sooner will his race be run, and confininger hes to setting is another metaphor using the personification of the sun to cross-file the passage of time (916). The sun is an example of life the more time that passes, or the rather the farther the race is run, is the closer life is to catch to an end or the closer to the sun setting. The sun and its come up and setting is something that is very commonly engrossd on obituaries to mark the receive and death of a person. That age is best which is the first, when youth and blood are warmer still being spent, the worse, and worst times still keep abreast the former (916). The previous passage is the loudspeaker utter that everything is better when you are young. You are livelier and more warm blooded when youre young and everything after(prenominal) that gets worse and worse. This is true from a physiological standpoint as you age the way your hormones work change and the process that build up substances needful in your body slow and at times stop, an example of this medically is osteoporosis.The last stanza of the poem reads, Then be not coy, still use your time and while ye may, go marry For having lost but at a time your prime, you may for ever tarry (916). I believe the speaker is saying to the reader dont be shy, dont gas your youth, marry now while your young and beauty and while you are filled with life and vigor. Once your beauty is gone it may be harder or it may be something that you may never do. Due to this poem being in the applaud and hate section of our book and also with it being about virgins, I cant help, but weigh that th is also has some subtle sexual connotations as well.I signify this be become the speaker is urging virgins and not just people in general to make the most of life. The speaker also uses the symbolism of the rose as a comparison for youth, but a woman transitioning for a virgin is also compared to a flower blooming. Between To The Virgins, To Make Much Of Time and To His Coy Mistress I find that To His Coy Mistress uses the most imagery and because of that it is my favorite of the two poems. Had we but world fair to middling, and time, this coyness, lady, were no crime. We would sit down, and think which way to walk, and pass our capacious loves day.Though by the Indian Ganges side shouldst rubies find I by the side of Humber would find fault (951). I found this opening stanza important, because it set the stage for the Carpe Diem theme. The speaker has compare the ladies coyness to a crime because they dont have enough time. This automatically says to me as he reader that he wa nts her to give up her shyness and give into him because they may never get the chance. He spends presentment him mistress all the time he would spend praising her body, but saves her heart last.Though he suggest that he would take his time agreeable his mistress he then states, For, lady, you deserve this state, nor would I love at a lower rate. But at my back I continuously hear times winged chariot hurrying near (951). This is the speaker again stating that on that point is not enough time for them to count any longer because time is quickly approaching. The speaker also states that his passion for her will turn to ash soon if they continue to wait and that her long preserved virginity and honor will also turn to dust. He is urging his mistress to be with him by constantly referencing death, The graves a comely and private lace, but none, I think, do there embrace (951). I have found that of the two poems that To His Coy Mistress does not flummox as much emphasis of seizi ng the day in general, but more so of seizing the moment now sexually. Though there were some references from the speaker about is mistress heart most of the references were in regards to his sexual desires. He references love several times, but warps it with his immediate cause for action. It seems that this speaker is using his love for her or saying that he has love for his mistress as a way to bring about her deflowering.This must be something that is a recurring trend across time periods as this can also be found much more apparent and much more frequently in our time period. Works Cited Herrick, Robert. To The Virgins, To Make Much Of Time. Abcarian, Richard, Marvin Klotz, and Samuel Cohen. Literature The adult male Experience. 10th. Boston Bedford/st Martins, 2010. 916 Marvell, Andrew. To His Coy Mistress. Abcarian, Richard, Marvin Klotz, and Samuel Cohen. Literature The Human Experience. 10th. Boston Bedford/st Martins, 2010. 950-951

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

God Is Love

divinity fudge is Love. This simple yet complex singing is order tho twice1, 2 in the Bible and is comm that presented out of context. It is slackly mis still and often circulated in a fashion that leads galore(postnominal) into Hell. The statement man very easy to mould and accede when presented in its wispy form has a depth of reality far beyond what the ordinary person wants to know even though such(prenominal) knowledge is small to buyback. 1. Whoever is without esteem does not know god, for deity is love. 1 earth-closet 48 2. We pick out come to know and to believe in the love god has for us*. divinity fudge is love, and whoever remains in love remains in immortal and beau ideal in him. 1 John 416 * This usage of the term us refers only to men of faith. In the following important prelude to the in a higher place passages the term if is used five (5) times. Entry into eternal invigoration must(prenominal)iness al steerings be considered as condition al Now this is the message that we concur heard from him and proclaim to you God is light, and in him there is no lousiness at all. If we say, We hasten home with him, while we continue to walk in darkness, we lie and do not act in equity.But if we walk in the light as he is in the light, then we have fellowship with ace another, and the blood of his Son the Naz atomic number 18ne cleanses us from all sin. If we say, We atomic number 18 without sin, we deceive ourselves, and the right is not in us. If we acknowledge our sins,3 he is stuffy and just and will forgive our sins and cleanse us from every wrongdoing. If we say, We have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us. 1 John 15-10 3. Whose sins you forgive ar forgiven them, and whose sins you retain are retained. John 2023 This authority was given by Jesus to the eleven apostles even though only ten were present at the time and to their validly appointive successors on Easter Sunday during His fi rst visitation with them. All validly ordained priests ( in like manner known by the terms presbyters and elders) have this authority even though not materially present during this visitation. NOTE The references in the book of Hebrews to Jesus being High Priest should be seen as a vindicated statement that there were other priests serving under His authority. (Priests mass only be ordained by some sensation with demonstratable authority from God to ordain.They fuel never be elected or self-appointed. ) It must be understood that true love reflects the totality of darlingness. Absolute goodness interests in God al integrity and is shared by Him with those who have truly sought joining with Him. When one honestly desires out God one is looking for that comprehensiveness of verity found only in God. A salutaryness of truth that few have any real desire to put into approach pattern. Those who lastly reach heaven have all truth present to them and evict utilize any truth they seek, but they remain incapable of possessing at any given time the totality of truth.Goodness is dependent upon truth and truth leads to referee. Not only must one desire truth and make a sincere effort to acquire all of the religious truths that are available and within ones capacity to understand, but one must also be willing to put them into answer as opportunities present themselves. Without truth their washstand be no understanding of goodness and goodness demands helper to God and neighbor according to the teachings of Jesus, Son of Man/Son of God. nicety is a cohort of goodness and has as its foundation the cry of God that is always truth.Justice is the exercise of kit and boodle in the benefit of both haughty and prohibit commands of God what one must do and what one must not do to obtain eternal happiness. Good deeds are meritorious works (witnesses to faith), benefitting the Heavenly Kingdom, that are performed by those who still reside in this life. Whil e no quantity or quality of works can substitute for the salvific act accomplished once by Jesus on the cross that allowed access to Heaven to those judged worthy (Matthew 2532), they are needful witnesses to that love of God which is required for one to recruit Heaven.Again, the pardon of God has been do obtainable only with the redemptional act of Jesus. Prior to this act no one was permitted entry into Heaven no matter how worthy they might be deemed to have been including Able, Enoch, Abraham, Joseph, Moses and many others. The ultimate mercy redemption from the sin of Adam that caused separation from God is trustworthy only by those who have put the fullness of Gods Word (commands direct or implicit) into practice by actions of faith. Summarization God is love and love is shed upon those who seek knowledge of required truths that lead to the practice of justice in respect for the goodness of God.A greater appreciation of God can be obtained by meditating upon the quali ties or attributes of God. Anyone who pursues truth and practices justice is love by God, that is, comes under the umbrella of that love which can be received from God alone. For those who do not pursue goodness, through the seeking of truth and the practice of justice, God is for them anger, hatred and wrath. To be a recipient of salvation/mercy one must sincerely develop a full love of God and pursue Him through the practice of justice that can be understood only through the acquisition of spiritual truth.One must develop a sincere interest in God, listen conduct and practice to His word, and grow in Gods love. God is love for those who love truth and practice justice and mercy Reference the Corporal and Spiritual whole shebang of Mercy according to His will. This is the true meaning of the phrase, God is love. One should never mistake the statement, God is Love, to mean that God does not condemn those who do not seek His love according to His (Gods) definition of love while si ncerely seeking His mercy.Those who ask for His mercy must be sincerely repentant, bid their lives around, and develop a humility that allows them to be of true service to the Lord through service in this life demonstrated in the form of good deeds/good works. Without the witness given by good works, any protestation that one loves God or has faith in God is meaningless. Gods mercy salvific act of redemption for race of active faith does not benefit those who culpably profess a false position of faith or love. In effect such people are lovers of evil and servants of Satan. God is good. Goodness loves and associates with that which is good.Perfect goodness which is the spirit of God is only able to associate with that which has been made/becomes perfectly good. apotheosis is not gratuitous. Absolute perfection is necessary before one can enter the presence of God. If perfection is not achieved in this life by those not condemned to Hell, then it must be obtained through a civili sation process in an intermediate state of existence. In this state referred to as Purgatory by those who accept Catholic doctrine (mandatory for Catholics) ones attachment to any imperfections, brought slightly by self-will, is gradually overcome.The removal of attachment to sin often a degree of denial relating to bad habit(s) not fully dealt with in this life is facilitated through the application of that degree of encouragement (pain) that proves necessary over an lengthy period of time to make one accept the necessity of turning away from accumulated dysfunctional desires and activities that had been accepted by the spiritual mind. It should be understood that many opportunities (much encouragement) are presented while in this life to turn away from sin.Problems and sufferings in this life were meant to focus ones attention and reliance upon the verbalise will of God. One must learn to accept what is universally good instead of that which is only self-serving. In life one i s given book of instructions and at times painful encouragement that is focused upon turning one away from sin and all attachment to it. Purgatory is for those who have only made a partial effort at turning away from link with sin. Please keep in mind that there are no foreswear rides into Heaven, for anyone.Further, there is no simple method for gaining perfection at the conclusion of life. After years of stubbornness relating to the retention of wrong doing one should not expect to be instantly made perfect. No one is gratuitously made perfect as this would limit that quality of free will which is necessary for one to effectively share with God in eternal life to the degree deserved through meritorious actions during life. Those who are not redeemable (unrepentant grave sinners) through a process of purification are condemned to eternal suffering commonly referred to as Hell.Eternal suffering is necessary for incorrigible sinners. They have eternally living spirits that would be mischievous to the harmony of Heaven if allowed freedom. Ceaseless pain keeps them from developing into a ramp that would be disruptive to those living in eternal happiness. When one fails to constipate to the commands of God statements of His will that are either positive or negative one is not in the love of God. Everyone wants to be able to do things their own way. They want to consider their way as the right way.This is a product of egocentrism (self-centeredness). Most are not willing to accept that Gods way is the product of great wisdom known through the lucid true teachings of the one authorized and unified (under supreme but controlled papal authority) Church established by Jesus. The avenue of established truth does not often agree with ones personal preferred way. God is love, but He is also light, truth and justice. Mercy is a by product of justice and while necessary for salvation it is not gratuitous even though Jesus redemptive act was gratuitous.Mercy is not g ranted to those who do not have sincerity of repentance. Everyone must make a humble request for mercy that has been warranted as worthy of being granted through meritorious deeds. Depending upon chance such deeds can be either simple or complex. SUMMARY God, being love, has the perfection of that love which is goodness. He sheds Light (knowledge) upon those who seek truth and then put the acquired truths into practice (justice good works versus misdeeds or indifference).One who truly loves God will act in a way that demonstrates a sincere love of God. One must give God sincere worship and humble himself before Jesus. Service to Jesus is through placing into action spiritual knowledge that has been obtained. A major part of acquire is focused upon love of neighbor. The simple way to accomplish this is to put into practice the Golden Rule, that is, Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. The corporal and spiritual works of mercy are of major importance in relation to s erving others in this life in the service of almighty God.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

The factory system took little account of the needs of workers – How far do you agree with this statement?

On the unanimous I agree with this statement. Most manumanufacturing plant owners did non take into the account the needs of their workers. However, there were some exceptions, sir Titus salt for example. To begin with I sh all told look at the factory system in general and the appalling living and working conditions it imposed on its workers.In the factory towns fellowships were squeezed into the centres of towns or around the factories. Landlords crammed as many people into houses as they could. The water supply was another problem. sewerage and rubbish was left in the backyard, piled up in the street or thrown into open drains, which ran down the roads. Even where there were drains and sewage pipes, they unremarkably ran into the local rivers where people collected their water.Most factory owners build the house quickly which do them not safe and also strengthened them closely together witch meant diseases, people having to share toilets which caused dirty water. multitude had to grease ones palms fresh water from carts and rich people.Sixty thousand of the population had no running water except from wells and rain water(From the commercial directory of Leeds 1834)The dirty water caused lots of disease much(prenominal) as cholera. cholera was a disease that arrived from the continent. It could kill a person very quickly. People sole(prenominal) used to live to 19 on an average repayable to disease.The reason for this was that people worked at least 9 hours a sidereal day and simply had four hours sleep. Most people were too tired to run after they came home from work. Most people only got paid fifteen shillings, which is equal to fifteen pence per week. If they wanted to work over time they only got a further three pence. Many people went to live in the towns so that they could find work in the factories. Before this they had worked in their homes. grind life was very different.Children were a great deal beaten black and blue with a strap or kicked in the ribs. If you got injured. For example lost your finger in a machine you wouldnt have got any wages. Girls who had long hair often had their hair chopped off as a punishment for enceinte work. The power loom would of would of made a terrible noise this causing harm/ear acre for the factory workers most of the time they was nothing to fire the workers from breathing in the dust from the machines. My eldest. The cog caught her finger and screwed it off beneath the knuckle(Samuel Coulson, Father of two girls, giving evidence to the committee 1832)The factory owners only paid their workers very little amount of money or even none at all when they were off due to sickness, they may have even lost there jobs and became paupers. Those people who were fit were made to go to the workhouse often families were separated. The food was poor and they had to where a uniform.There were 129 steam clean factories in Bradford and Bradford had become the world centre of th e worsted industry. Worsted is a fine woollen cloth used to make womens dresses and mens suits. The town often appealed tens of thousands of migrants mainly young men and women who wanted to work in the mills, they came from all over the British Isles. The town was unable to cope with them. No one took responsibility for a long time. There were terrible problems of drunkenness, effect and crime. The pollution of the atmosphere in Bradford was dreadful. When the magistrates tried to introduce the workhouse system to Bradford in 1836 they had to flee to Leeds as the mob tried to take control of the town.This subr awayine shows that there was only a little built up battleground in Bradford about 1800But in 1879 they where much more houses built more closely together and more people were living in them.The rapid growth of population caused terrible problems because there were no rules or regulations about building houses. present I include a stock from the Bradford Observer June 5 th 1845.Thompsons buildings this locality is situate on an eminence at the foot of which runs a filthy beck, or stream, impregnated with the refuse of dye houses, manufactories, and dwellings near to it. The streets are narrow and filthy, and the general arrangement of the dwellings unfavourable to health. The inhabitants uniformly speak out of ill health. In 12 cases taken on rotation, the figures showed that the dwellings are live by ninety-five persons, having only twenty four beds, or octet to one bedroom, the average size of which is seventeen feet by fifteen. plate 7 Family 9 , inhabit and beds 2, house workers 5. crusade 8 Same numbers of family, beds, and room as last house workers 4. fortune 9 Family 6 room and beds 2, house workers 4.Case 10 Family 10, rooms and beds 2 house workers 5.Case 11 Family 7 rooms 2 bed 1 house workers 4.Case 12 Family 11 rooms 3 beds 2, house workers 5.Case 13 Family 8 rooms, beds, and workers 2 females, charcoal.Case 14 Family 12, rooms 2, beds 3, workers 4 females 2 coals.Case 15 Family 7 rooms and beds 2 workers 4 female 1.Case 16 Family 10 rooms 2, beds 3 workers 4.Case 18 Family 4 room and bed workers 2 female 1.This meant that they would be more pollution they would be more sewage in the streets, which would attract rats and other vermin.The pollution was so bad that the canal was called STINK RIVER. A survey in 1845 revealed that between 8 and 12 people lived in two rooms on average. This, along with poor sanitation, badly built (jerry built) houses caused the life expectation in Bradford to be the lowest in Yorkshire only 20 old age of age.They were exceptions though my first example is Robert Owen 1771 1858.Between the years 1815 to 1820 they was distress and a lot of unemployment. Parliaments were Luke warm about the new idea, scarcely the setting up of villages of co-operation remained the basic aim of socialists and the co-operative movement up to the pose of the nineteenth centaury. One of the most dramatic events in Robert Owens life was the forming of the solemn National Consolidated Trades Union in 1834. Though the settlements were a failure, the co-operative movements divine Robert Owen, spread rapidly through Britain between 1826 and 1835, when some two vitamin C and fifty Co-operative societies were formed. They set up stores for the sale of high quality goods at reasonable prices and formed producers co-operatives to help the unemployed. It was the co-operative retail shop, which gave the movement its greatest success.Here I include the map of Robert Owens successful mill, New Lanark.Owen gave socialism all its basic ideas. He laid the foundations of the co-operative movement and left his mark on trade unionism. He was a pioneer in a factory reform and progressive education, and few men have played such a large part in social reform.Now I go on to look at my second example, Sir Titus Salt.Sir Titus Salt was innate(p) at Morley in 1803. He first worked for his father as a wool merchant. He later set up his own rotate plant in Bradford in 1834. By this time he had espouse Caroline Whitlon, The daughter of a rich Lincolnshire sheep farmer.He first carried out a social survey among his workers to see what size house they needed. It had not previously occurred to anyone that a worker with ten children needed more rooms in his house than a worker with one child.Sir Titus Salt chose a site adjoining the Leeds Liverpool canal, the River Aire and the newly made railway station, So he had ideal transport facilities for his trading. It was a massive mill, he chose innovative architects, and hold to their suggestion of Italianite style. There was space, light and warmth in his new mill. The position was superb, in a green and pleasant are. The mill opened in 1853 on Titus Salts 50th birthday.He then created an entire village of houses, park, school, library, digression and a learning institute and an outdoor sport facility. The streets were named afte r his children and family. He called this village Saltaire.Titus employed a large number of workers in combing, go around and weaving his cloth. He had business connections throughout Europe and America and nonetheless For in his making his thousands he never forgot, the thousands who helped him to make themTitus had simple scarcely good education, and would have liked to become a doctor, but could not stand the sight of blood, so that ambition was quashed, although it did show that young Titus was sensible of health and disease. His family were Congregationalists, and religion was very influential in their upbringing.On the whole I agree that the factory system took little account of the needs of its workers but there were exceptions, sir Titus Salt and Robert Owen were one of these exceptions.